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Cities in Motion: Interior, Coast, and Diaspora in Transnational China (review)

Cities in Motion: Interior, Coast, and Diaspora in Transnational China (review) Reviews 421 presentstheconceptsofyinandyang,wu xingandhun-posoultheoryasthey relatetodreams(p.422).OngthenanalyzesChen'staxonomyofdreamsandwhat theysignifyaboutthepast,present,andfuture(pp.423­432),concludingthat Chen'sworkissignificantasasynthesisofChineseoneirologyandviewofdreams as"thepre-eminentmetaphorforthehumancondition"(p.432). Thevolume'slaststudy,byBarendJ.terHaar,isacompletedeparturefromthe others,beingabouttherelationshipbetweentheYongzhengemperor(r.1722­1735) andtheBuddhistabbotsoftheLi'anMonasteryinHangzhouandtheBolinMonasteryinBeijing.TerHaarproposesthatYongzheng's"overallapproachtogovernmentandseveralconcretepolicymeasurescanbemuchbetterunderstoodagainst thisBuddhistbackground"(p.437).Thestudyincludestablesillustratingthe namesofmonksatthesemonasteriesalongwithinformationabouttheirlives (pp. 442­445).TerHaarchroniclesthelifeofYongzhengfromthebeginningofhis meditationintheearlyeighteenthcenturyatBolin,wherehefirstachieved enlightenment,anddescribesthecloserelationshedevelopedwiththisChan community(p.458),althoughforpoliticalreasonshelatertriedtocoverupthe connection(p.463).ThefinalpagesofthestudyanalyzeYongzheng'sincorporationofChanBuddhistphilosophyintohisgovernance. Theoverallimpressionthatthedisparatestudiesinthisvolumemakesonthe readeristhat,aswithsomanyotheraspectsofChina,themorethingschange,the moretheystaythesame.Spiritwriting,self-cultivation,andtheDaoistobsession withgainingimmortality,forexample,arethesametodayastheywerein1500. Althoughthesestudiesarebyauthorsofdifferingbackgroundsandconcerns,they allcometogethertodeepenourunderstandingofChinesepopularreligionasit existstoday,andwillpresumablycontinuetoexistintothefuture.Everyoneof themiswellresearchedandwellwritten.Theauthors'passionforthesubjectand questtodiscoverthetruthaboutitarepresentineveryline.Thisisrecommended readingforanyoneinterestedinChinesecultureingeneral. H.Swindall Dr. Swindall teaches English in the Department of Global Studies at Pusan National University in Korea. © 2012 by University of Hawai`i Press ShermanCochranandDavidStrand,editors.Cities in Motion: Interior, Coast, and Diaspora in Transnational China.Berkeley:Universityof California,CentreforChineseStudies,2011.313pp.Paperback$25.00, isbn 978-1-557-29089-2. 422 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.17,No.4,2010 Thisisaboldandfascinatingcollectionofessaysbyagroupofdistinguished authorswhoworkindifferentareasofmodernChinesehistory.Thethemesthat jointheirworktogetheraremovementandmigration.Thevolumemakesastrong anddirectrecognitionofthekeyroleofmigration,inallitsforms,inmodern Chinesehistory.ItgoesfarbeyondthestandardtreatmentsofmigrationinChinesehistory,wheremigrationusuallyreferstooverseasChineseandignores movementwithinChina.ThistreatmentacceptstacitlytheConfucianconvention thatpeoplearesotightlystucktotheirhomeplacesthatmigrationisnotsomethingthattheydowillingly,butonlywhenforcedtodoso.Actualhistoryshows exactlytheopposite,thatpeoplehavebeenonthemovesinceprehistoricaltimes, thatthemovementsarevoluntaryaswellasforced,andthatsuccessivegovernmentshavebeenthemajorsponsorsofmigration,bothtosettlenewlandsand protecttheborders,andalso,coincidentally,asameansofpunishment.Thisbook rectifiestheconvention. Thisbookdoessomethingevenmoreimportantthanrectifyingthestability convention.Itexpandstheconceptofmigrationfrombeinglimitedtothemovementofpeopletocoverthemovementofreligions,commodities,ideas,customs, fashions,andahostofotherinfluences.Inasocietysoheavilyinfluencedbyideas andreligionsthatcameintoChinafromoutside(Buddhism,Islam,Marxism), thisideaseemsobvious,butithasoftenbeenignored.Thisbookprovidesallthe evidenceontheinfluenceofmigration,bothwithinChinaandcomingfrom outside.Ithasessaysonthemigrationofideasandreligiousbeliefs(RobertWeller andJuliaHuang);onmigrationandstyle(VimalinRujivacharakaulandKarl Gerth);onmigrationandwar(KristinStapletonandAllisonRottman);onmigrationandgender(MadelineHsu);onmigrationofsystems(KlausMuhlhahn);on money,trade,andmigration(BreetSheehan);andonmigrationafterdeath(CarolineReevesandElizabethSinn).Theessaysarewellwrittenandwelledited,which makesthemmuchmorelivelyandreadablethanisthecasewithmanycollections ofessays. Beyondthegeneralthemeofmigration,thechaptersarefullofcross-cutting ideas,inwhichmigrationbecomesthevehicletodiscussahostofotherthemes. OneexampleisMadelineHsu'spenetratingstudyofthesociallivesofbachelor emigrantsandtheevolutionofhomosociality(thisratherclunkywordisusedto describetherelationswithinall-malecommunities;itisdistinctfromhomosexuality).All-malesocietieswerecommoninChina,fromthearmytomonasteriesto bandit/outlawgroups,andmuchofwhatHsuhastosaycouldbeusedindiscussingthem.ElizabethSinnandCarolineReevesdiscussthecrucialimportanceof identityintermsofwhathappenstotheremainsofmigrantsaftertheirdeath;the ideaofbeingburiedawayfromhomewasunthinkableuntilveryrecently.Sinn's articleshowsthecomplexityandsophisticationofthemechanismsthattook remainshome.Whenremainsareburiedawayfromhome,asinVancouvertoday, itisasignofaprofoundshiftinidentity,therecognitionofanewhome. Reviews 423 Oneadditiontothisbookwouldbeacleareroutlineofthehistoricalcontext andsequence.Becausethepaperscoversuchalongrangeoftime,and becausetheessaysthemselvescoverdifferinglengthsoftime,theoverallhistorical contextissometimescloudy.Giventhatmostdealwiththetwentiethcentury, lackofclaritybecomesaproblem,giventhatwarfarewassuchaprominent partoftheperiod.Theimpactofwarfareonmigration,andthedegreetowhich warstimulatessomemigrationsandpreventsothers,isenormous.Someofthe essaysaddresswardirectly(Stapleton,Rottman)andshowhowwartransformed societybyforcingpeopletomoveandtochange.TheResistanceWar(1937­1945) wasoneofthegreatstimulitogetyoungpeopletomoveawayfromtheeastern citiesandintothehinterland.Butotheressaystreatthatwarandthecivilwarthat followedalmostasablackhole,tobepassedoverinsilence.Thisisnotaccidental; thewarwasalongandpainfulhiatusintheprocessesofchange,manyof whichweredistortedandevenabortedbythewar.Theoverseascommunities, for example,werecutofffordecadesfromChinaandtransformed.Incoming ideas aboutfashionandarchitectureweresweptasidebytheSovietinfluenceafter 1949. Theessaysinthisbookshowthedegreetowhichregionalandnational boundariesareirrelevantinmanymigrations,orbarriersthatexistonlyonpaper. TheChinesewholivedintheoldoverseascommunitiesinNorthAmericawere,in mostrespects,stilllivinginaChineseworld(Hsu).Chinesearchitectsweretalking aboutanewarchitectureforChinaatthesametimetheywerepracticingin internationalstyles(Rujivacharakaul).ThediscreetbattleoverShanghaifashion wasaboutwhethernewformsofChinesedressshouldevolve,orwhetherShanghaipeopleshouldadopttransnational(Western)clothing(Gerth).Sadly,boththe architectureandthefashionbattleswereeventuallylost:inarchitecture,thevictor isinternationalistglass,brass,andmarble;infashion,thedrabbusinesssuit.No modernizingstatehasreallycreateditsownnationaland modernarchitecture,but unlikeIndia,Chinahasnotbeenabletoadaptherrichtraditionalcostumestothe modernworld. Oneofthemostfascinatingessaysinthisvolumeisonthespreadofcompassionrelief(Tzu-chi)andthecharismaticroleofthefounderofthemovement, ChengYen.ThemovementstartedontheremoteeastcoastofTaiwan,aplacethat seemsanunlikelystartingpointforareligiousmovement.Nonetheless,what ChengYenhasachievedistochannelwidespreadfeelingsofcompassionforthe sufferingsofotherintoavastnumberofvolunteers,bothinTaiwanandinthe widerworld,whomakepracticaleffortstocareforothers. Twoimportantelementsaremissingfromthebook.Goodmapsareessential forallformsofmigration.Andwell-reproducedphotographsshouldbeessential inanybook.Thepoorqualityofthephotographsinthisbookisnotthefaultof theauthors,butofthecurrentcurseofdigitalreproduction,thatproducesillustrationssopoorinqualitythattheyarehardlyworthreproducing.Ihopeotherswill 424 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.17,No.4,2010 joinmeincampaigningagainstthistechnologicalabortion.SofarIamalonely voice. DianaLary Diana Lary is the author of TheChinesePeopleatWar (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010) and ChineseMigrations: TheMovementofPeople,Goods, andIdeasoverFourMillennia ( forthcoming). BernardD.Cole.The Great Wall at Sea: China's Navy in the Twenty-first Century.Secondedition.Annapolis,MD:NavalInstitutePress,2010. Hardcover$36.95,isbn978-1-591-14142-6. AndrewS.Erickson,LyleJ.Goldstein,andNanLi,editors.China, the United States, and Twenty-first-Century Sea Power: Defining a Maritime Security Partnership.Annapolis,MD:NavalInstitutePress,2010. Hardcover$47.95,isbn978-1-591-14243-0. ZhiqunZhu.China's New http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png China Review International University of Hawai'I Press

Cities in Motion: Interior, Coast, and Diaspora in Transnational China (review)

China Review International , Volume 17 (4) – Aug 9, 2010

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Reviews 421 presentstheconceptsofyinandyang,wu xingandhun-posoultheoryasthey relatetodreams(p.422).OngthenanalyzesChen'staxonomyofdreamsandwhat theysignifyaboutthepast,present,andfuture(pp.423­432),concludingthat Chen'sworkissignificantasasynthesisofChineseoneirologyandviewofdreams as"thepre-eminentmetaphorforthehumancondition"(p.432). Thevolume'slaststudy,byBarendJ.terHaar,isacompletedeparturefromthe others,beingabouttherelationshipbetweentheYongzhengemperor(r.1722­1735) andtheBuddhistabbotsoftheLi'anMonasteryinHangzhouandtheBolinMonasteryinBeijing.TerHaarproposesthatYongzheng's"overallapproachtogovernmentandseveralconcretepolicymeasurescanbemuchbetterunderstoodagainst thisBuddhistbackground"(p.437).Thestudyincludestablesillustratingthe namesofmonksatthesemonasteriesalongwithinformationabouttheirlives (pp. 442­445).TerHaarchroniclesthelifeofYongzhengfromthebeginningofhis meditationintheearlyeighteenthcenturyatBolin,wherehefirstachieved enlightenment,anddescribesthecloserelationshedevelopedwiththisChan community(p.458),althoughforpoliticalreasonshelatertriedtocoverupthe connection(p.463).ThefinalpagesofthestudyanalyzeYongzheng'sincorporationofChanBuddhistphilosophyintohisgovernance. Theoverallimpressionthatthedisparatestudiesinthisvolumemakesonthe readeristhat,aswithsomanyotheraspectsofChina,themorethingschange,the moretheystaythesame.Spiritwriting,self-cultivation,andtheDaoistobsession withgainingimmortality,forexample,arethesametodayastheywerein1500. Althoughthesestudiesarebyauthorsofdifferingbackgroundsandconcerns,they allcometogethertodeepenourunderstandingofChinesepopularreligionasit existstoday,andwillpresumablycontinuetoexistintothefuture.Everyoneof themiswellresearchedandwellwritten.Theauthors'passionforthesubjectand questtodiscoverthetruthaboutitarepresentineveryline.Thisisrecommended readingforanyoneinterestedinChinesecultureingeneral. H.Swindall Dr. Swindall teaches English in the Department of Global Studies at Pusan National University in Korea. © 2012 by University of Hawai`i Press ShermanCochranandDavidStrand,editors.Cities in Motion: Interior, Coast, and Diaspora in Transnational China.Berkeley:Universityof California,CentreforChineseStudies,2011.313pp.Paperback$25.00, isbn 978-1-557-29089-2. 422 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.17,No.4,2010 Thisisaboldandfascinatingcollectionofessaysbyagroupofdistinguished authorswhoworkindifferentareasofmodernChinesehistory.Thethemesthat jointheirworktogetheraremovementandmigration.Thevolumemakesastrong anddirectrecognitionofthekeyroleofmigration,inallitsforms,inmodern Chinesehistory.ItgoesfarbeyondthestandardtreatmentsofmigrationinChinesehistory,wheremigrationusuallyreferstooverseasChineseandignores movementwithinChina.ThistreatmentacceptstacitlytheConfucianconvention thatpeoplearesotightlystucktotheirhomeplacesthatmigrationisnotsomethingthattheydowillingly,butonlywhenforcedtodoso.Actualhistoryshows exactlytheopposite,thatpeoplehavebeenonthemovesinceprehistoricaltimes, thatthemovementsarevoluntaryaswellasforced,andthatsuccessivegovernmentshavebeenthemajorsponsorsofmigration,bothtosettlenewlandsand protecttheborders,andalso,coincidentally,asameansofpunishment.Thisbook rectifiestheconvention. Thisbookdoessomethingevenmoreimportantthanrectifyingthestability convention.Itexpandstheconceptofmigrationfrombeinglimitedtothemovementofpeopletocoverthemovementofreligions,commodities,ideas,customs, fashions,andahostofotherinfluences.Inasocietysoheavilyinfluencedbyideas andreligionsthatcameintoChinafromoutside(Buddhism,Islam,Marxism), thisideaseemsobvious,butithasoftenbeenignored.Thisbookprovidesallthe evidenceontheinfluenceofmigration,bothwithinChinaandcomingfrom outside.Ithasessaysonthemigrationofideasandreligiousbeliefs(RobertWeller andJuliaHuang);onmigrationandstyle(VimalinRujivacharakaulandKarl Gerth);onmigrationandwar(KristinStapletonandAllisonRottman);onmigrationandgender(MadelineHsu);onmigrationofsystems(KlausMuhlhahn);on money,trade,andmigration(BreetSheehan);andonmigrationafterdeath(CarolineReevesandElizabethSinn).Theessaysarewellwrittenandwelledited,which makesthemmuchmorelivelyandreadablethanisthecasewithmanycollections ofessays. Beyondthegeneralthemeofmigration,thechaptersarefullofcross-cutting ideas,inwhichmigrationbecomesthevehicletodiscussahostofotherthemes. OneexampleisMadelineHsu'spenetratingstudyofthesociallivesofbachelor emigrantsandtheevolutionofhomosociality(thisratherclunkywordisusedto describetherelationswithinall-malecommunities;itisdistinctfromhomosexuality).All-malesocietieswerecommoninChina,fromthearmytomonasteriesto bandit/outlawgroups,andmuchofwhatHsuhastosaycouldbeusedindiscussingthem.ElizabethSinnandCarolineReevesdiscussthecrucialimportanceof identityintermsofwhathappenstotheremainsofmigrantsaftertheirdeath;the ideaofbeingburiedawayfromhomewasunthinkableuntilveryrecently.Sinn's articleshowsthecomplexityandsophisticationofthemechanismsthattook remainshome.Whenremainsareburiedawayfromhome,asinVancouvertoday, itisasignofaprofoundshiftinidentity,therecognitionofanewhome. Reviews 423 Oneadditiontothisbookwouldbeacleareroutlineofthehistoricalcontext andsequence.Becausethepaperscoversuchalongrangeoftime,and becausetheessaysthemselvescoverdifferinglengthsoftime,theoverallhistorical contextissometimescloudy.Giventhatmostdealwiththetwentiethcentury, lackofclaritybecomesaproblem,giventhatwarfarewassuchaprominent partoftheperiod.Theimpactofwarfareonmigration,andthedegreetowhich warstimulatessomemigrationsandpreventsothers,isenormous.Someofthe essaysaddresswardirectly(Stapleton,Rottman)andshowhowwartransformed societybyforcingpeopletomoveandtochange.TheResistanceWar(1937­1945) wasoneofthegreatstimulitogetyoungpeopletomoveawayfromtheeastern citiesandintothehinterland.Butotheressaystreatthatwarandthecivilwarthat followedalmostasablackhole,tobepassedoverinsilence.Thisisnotaccidental; thewarwasalongandpainfulhiatusintheprocessesofchange,manyof whichweredistortedandevenabortedbythewar.Theoverseascommunities, for example,werecutofffordecadesfromChinaandtransformed.Incoming ideas aboutfashionandarchitectureweresweptasidebytheSovietinfluenceafter 1949. Theessaysinthisbookshowthedegreetowhichregionalandnational boundariesareirrelevantinmanymigrations,orbarriersthatexistonlyonpaper. TheChinesewholivedintheoldoverseascommunitiesinNorthAmericawere,in mostrespects,stilllivinginaChineseworld(Hsu).Chinesearchitectsweretalking aboutanewarchitectureforChinaatthesametimetheywerepracticingin internationalstyles(Rujivacharakaul).ThediscreetbattleoverShanghaifashion wasaboutwhethernewformsofChinesedressshouldevolve,orwhetherShanghaipeopleshouldadopttransnational(Western)clothing(Gerth).Sadly,boththe architectureandthefashionbattleswereeventuallylost:inarchitecture,thevictor isinternationalistglass,brass,andmarble;infashion,thedrabbusinesssuit.No modernizingstatehasreallycreateditsownnationaland modernarchitecture,but unlikeIndia,Chinahasnotbeenabletoadaptherrichtraditionalcostumestothe modernworld. Oneofthemostfascinatingessaysinthisvolumeisonthespreadofcompassionrelief(Tzu-chi)andthecharismaticroleofthefounderofthemovement, ChengYen.ThemovementstartedontheremoteeastcoastofTaiwan,aplacethat seemsanunlikelystartingpointforareligiousmovement.Nonetheless,what ChengYenhasachievedistochannelwidespreadfeelingsofcompassionforthe sufferingsofotherintoavastnumberofvolunteers,bothinTaiwanandinthe widerworld,whomakepracticaleffortstocareforothers. Twoimportantelementsaremissingfromthebook.Goodmapsareessential forallformsofmigration.Andwell-reproducedphotographsshouldbeessential inanybook.Thepoorqualityofthephotographsinthisbookisnotthefaultof theauthors,butofthecurrentcurseofdigitalreproduction,thatproducesillustrationssopoorinqualitythattheyarehardlyworthreproducing.Ihopeotherswill 424 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.17,No.4,2010 joinmeincampaigningagainstthistechnologicalabortion.SofarIamalonely voice. DianaLary Diana Lary is the author of TheChinesePeopleatWar (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010) and ChineseMigrations: TheMovementofPeople,Goods, andIdeasoverFourMillennia ( forthcoming). BernardD.Cole.The Great Wall at Sea: China's Navy in the Twenty-first Century.Secondedition.Annapolis,MD:NavalInstitutePress,2010. Hardcover$36.95,isbn978-1-591-14142-6. AndrewS.Erickson,LyleJ.Goldstein,andNanLi,editors.China, the United States, and Twenty-first-Century Sea Power: Defining a Maritime Security Partnership.Annapolis,MD:NavalInstitutePress,2010. Hardcover$47.95,isbn978-1-591-14243-0. ZhiqunZhu.China's New

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China Review InternationalUniversity of Hawai'I Press

Published: Aug 9, 2010

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