Abstract Severe immunosuppression and the presence of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are strongly associated with incidence of venous thromboembolism especially deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (PE). The co-occurrence of 2 diseases with similar clinical presentation can pose diagnostic and treatment challenges. We describe the case of a 54-year-old male, with no significant past medical history who presented with complaints of a 6-week history of shortness of breath. He was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection with a CD4 count of 121 cells/μL and severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. After 5 days of treatment without significant improvement, we obtained a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram, which showed concurrent acute PE. His clinical condition improved with anticoagulation therapy. Clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion and consider PE in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea and hypoxemia, particularly when P. jirovecii pneumonia infection or other acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining illnesses are suspected.
Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice – Wolters Kluwer Health
Published: Apr 1, 2017
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