Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, diagnostic, and prognostic particularities in children – a series of case reports and a review of the literature (CARE compliant)

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, diagnostic, and prognostic particularities in children – a series of case... AbstractRationale:Non-Hodgkin lymphoma remains an unpredictable condition in pediatric patients.Patient concerns:Our first case describes an 8-year-old boy with a history of iron deficiency anemia, admitted in our clinic for recurrent abdominal pain, weight loss, loss of appetite, diarrheic stools, and fever. The second case also describes an 8-year-old boy admitted for abdominal pain and vomiting. The 3rd case refers to a 4 years and 10 months old boy admitted in our clinic with abdominal pain and loss of appetite, who was initially admitted in the Pediatrics Surgery Clinic with the suspicion of appendicitis. Our 4th patient was a 5-year-old boy admitted in our clinic for abdominal pain and intermittent diarrheic stools.Diagnoses:In the first case, the laboratory tests showed anemia, thrombocytosis, elevated inflammatory biomarkers, a low level of iron, and hypoproteinemia. The abdominal ultrasound and CT exam revealed an abdominal mass, and the histopathological exam established the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the bowel. In the second case, the laboratory tests pointed out anemia, elevated ESR and lactate dehydrogenase level, while both abdominal ultrasound and CT exams showed an abdominal mass. The histopathological exam confirmed the diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma. Regarding our 3rd case, the laboratory findings revealed leukocytosis, anemia, thrombocytosis, increased inflammatory biomarkers, elevated LDH, and a low level of iron. The abdominal ultrasound and the CT scan revealed an abdominal mass which, according to the histopathological exam, was a Burkitt lymphoma. Due to the cranial CT findings the patient was diagnosed with IV stage Burkitt lymphoma with central nervous system metastases. In our 4th patients we found leukocytosis, anemia, mildly increased inflammatory biomarkers, a high level of LDH, hypoproteinemia, and a low level of serum Ir. Both ultrasound and abdominal CT exams were negative, but the exploratory laparotomy identified an abdominal mass, and according to the histopathological exam the patient was diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma.Interventions:All the patients followed chemotherapy (B-NHL BFM 04 protocol) and supportive treatment.Outcomes:The first patient died approximately 4 months after the completion of chemotherapy due to tumor relapse, the second patient died after the first cure of chemotherapy and the fourth patient died at approximately 2 years after the diagnosis. The third patient is recurrence-free after 2 years.Lessons:Despite the advances in the management, NHL remains a fatal condition in pediatrics. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Medicine Wolters Kluwer Health

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, diagnostic, and prognostic particularities in children – a series of case reports and a review of the literature (CARE compliant)

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Publisher
Wolters Kluwer
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.
ISSN
0025-7974
eISSN
1536-5964
D.O.I.
10.1097/MD.0000000000009802
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

AbstractRationale:Non-Hodgkin lymphoma remains an unpredictable condition in pediatric patients.Patient concerns:Our first case describes an 8-year-old boy with a history of iron deficiency anemia, admitted in our clinic for recurrent abdominal pain, weight loss, loss of appetite, diarrheic stools, and fever. The second case also describes an 8-year-old boy admitted for abdominal pain and vomiting. The 3rd case refers to a 4 years and 10 months old boy admitted in our clinic with abdominal pain and loss of appetite, who was initially admitted in the Pediatrics Surgery Clinic with the suspicion of appendicitis. Our 4th patient was a 5-year-old boy admitted in our clinic for abdominal pain and intermittent diarrheic stools.Diagnoses:In the first case, the laboratory tests showed anemia, thrombocytosis, elevated inflammatory biomarkers, a low level of iron, and hypoproteinemia. The abdominal ultrasound and CT exam revealed an abdominal mass, and the histopathological exam established the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the bowel. In the second case, the laboratory tests pointed out anemia, elevated ESR and lactate dehydrogenase level, while both abdominal ultrasound and CT exams showed an abdominal mass. The histopathological exam confirmed the diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma. Regarding our 3rd case, the laboratory findings revealed leukocytosis, anemia, thrombocytosis, increased inflammatory biomarkers, elevated LDH, and a low level of iron. The abdominal ultrasound and the CT scan revealed an abdominal mass which, according to the histopathological exam, was a Burkitt lymphoma. Due to the cranial CT findings the patient was diagnosed with IV stage Burkitt lymphoma with central nervous system metastases. In our 4th patients we found leukocytosis, anemia, mildly increased inflammatory biomarkers, a high level of LDH, hypoproteinemia, and a low level of serum Ir. Both ultrasound and abdominal CT exams were negative, but the exploratory laparotomy identified an abdominal mass, and according to the histopathological exam the patient was diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma.Interventions:All the patients followed chemotherapy (B-NHL BFM 04 protocol) and supportive treatment.Outcomes:The first patient died approximately 4 months after the completion of chemotherapy due to tumor relapse, the second patient died after the first cure of chemotherapy and the fourth patient died at approximately 2 years after the diagnosis. The third patient is recurrence-free after 2 years.Lessons:Despite the advances in the management, NHL remains a fatal condition in pediatrics.

Journal

MedicineWolters Kluwer Health

Published: Feb 1, 2018

References

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