Melanoma, an aggressive skin tumor with high metastatic potential, is associated with high mortality and increasing morbidity. Multiple available chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic modalities failed to improve survival in advanced disease, and the search for new agents is ongoing. The aim of this study was to investigate antimelanoma effects of O,O-diethyl-(S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N′di-2-(3-cyclohexyl) propanoate dihydrochloride (EE), a previously synthesized and characterized organic compound. Mouse melanoma B16 cell viability was assessed using acid phosphatase, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, sulforhodamine B, and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Apoptosis and autophagy were investigated using flow cytometry, fluorescence and electron microscopy, and western blotting. In vivo antitumor potential was assessed in subcutaneous mouse melanoma model after 14 days of treatment with EE. Tumor mass and volume were measured, and RT-PCR was used for investigating the expression of autophagy-related, proapoptotic, and antiapoptotic molecules in tumor tissue. Investigated organic compound exerts significant cytotoxic effect against B16 cells. EE induced apoptosis, as confirmed by phosphatidyl serine externalisation, caspase activation, and ultrastructural features typical for apoptosis seen on fluorescence and electron microscopes. The apoptotic mechanism included prompt disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative stress. No autophagy was observed. Antimelanoma action and apoptosis induction were confirmed in vivo, as EE decreased mass and volume of tumors, and increased expression of several proapoptotic genes. EE possesses significant antimelanoma action and causes caspase-dependent apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial damage and reactive oxygen species production. Decrease in tumor growth and increase in expression of proapoptotic genes in tumor tissue suggest that EE warrants further investigation as a candidate agent in treating melanoma.
Melanoma Research – Wolters Kluwer Health
Published: Feb 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera