AbstractRationale:Haemolytic-uremic syndrome is a rare but serious complication of bacterial and viral infections, which is characterized by the triad of: acute renal failure, microangiopathic haemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, sometimes severe, requiring peritoneal dialysis. In Europe, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in paediatric pathology is primarily caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, followed by O26. Beside these etiologies, there are other bacterial and viral infections, and also noninfectious ones that have been associated to lead to HUS as well: in the progression of neoplasia, medication-related, post-transplantation, during pregnancy or associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus or family causes with autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance. In terms of pathogenesis, HUS is the result of endothelial injury, most commonly being a result of the action of Shiga toxin. The unfavorable prognosis factors being represented by the age of more than 5 years old, different etiologies from STEC, persistent oligoanuria, central nervous system and glomerular impairment, the association of fever with leukocytosis. HUS is responsible for 7% of cases of hypertension in infants, and an important cause of significant kidney damage in adults.Patient concerns:We present one case of HUS caused by adenovirus in a boy of 1 year and 7 months old with severe evolution, which required peritoneal dialysis.Diagnose:Stool sample repeated examination for adenovirus antigen was positive in 2 samples.Intervention:During hospitalization, the patient required 8 peritoneal dialysis sessions.Outcome:The renal function was corrected on discharge, the patient required cardiovascular monitoring 1 month after discharge.Lesson:Although the most common cause that leads to HUS remains STEC, other etiologies like viral ones that may be responsible for severe enteric infection with progression into HUS should not be neglected.
Medicine – Wolters Kluwer Health
Published: Feb 1, 2018
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