Are the brain's vascular and Alzheimer pathologies additive or interactive?

Are the brain's vascular and Alzheimer pathologies additive or interactive? Purpose of reviewAlzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) commonly co-occur. Whether CVD promotes the progression of Alzheimer's disease pathology remains a source of great interest. Recent technological developments have enabled us to examine their inter-relationship using quantifiable, biomarker-based approaches. We provide an overview of advances in understanding the relationship between vascular and Alzheimer's disease pathologies, with particular emphasis on β-amyloid and tau as measured by positron emission tomography and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration, and magnetic resonance imaging markers of small vessel disease (SVD).Recent findingsThe relationship between cerebral β-amyloid and various markers of SVD has been widely studied, albeit with somewhat mixed results. Significant associations have been elucidated, particularly between β-amyloid burden and white matter hyperintensities (WMH), as well as lobar cerebral microbleeds (CMB), with additive effects on cognition. There is preliminary evidence for an association between SVD and tau burden in vivo, although compared with β-amyloid, fewer studies have examined this relationship.SummaryThe overlap between Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular pathologies is now being increasingly supported by imaging and CSF biomarkers, indicating a synergistic effect of these co-pathologies on cognition. The association of WMH and CMB with Alzheimer's disease pathology does not establish direction of causality, for which long-term longitudinal studies are needed. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Current Opinion in Psychiatry Wolters Kluwer Health

Are the brain's vascular and Alzheimer pathologies additive or interactive?

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Publisher
Wolters Kluwer
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN
0951-7367
eISSN
1473-6578
D.O.I.
10.1097/YCO.0000000000000395
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Purpose of reviewAlzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) commonly co-occur. Whether CVD promotes the progression of Alzheimer's disease pathology remains a source of great interest. Recent technological developments have enabled us to examine their inter-relationship using quantifiable, biomarker-based approaches. We provide an overview of advances in understanding the relationship between vascular and Alzheimer's disease pathologies, with particular emphasis on β-amyloid and tau as measured by positron emission tomography and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration, and magnetic resonance imaging markers of small vessel disease (SVD).Recent findingsThe relationship between cerebral β-amyloid and various markers of SVD has been widely studied, albeit with somewhat mixed results. Significant associations have been elucidated, particularly between β-amyloid burden and white matter hyperintensities (WMH), as well as lobar cerebral microbleeds (CMB), with additive effects on cognition. There is preliminary evidence for an association between SVD and tau burden in vivo, although compared with β-amyloid, fewer studies have examined this relationship.SummaryThe overlap between Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular pathologies is now being increasingly supported by imaging and CSF biomarkers, indicating a synergistic effect of these co-pathologies on cognition. The association of WMH and CMB with Alzheimer's disease pathology does not establish direction of causality, for which long-term longitudinal studies are needed.

Journal

Current Opinion in PsychiatryWolters Kluwer Health

Published: Mar 1, 2018

References

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