Editor’s Perspective What We Already Know about This Topic Ketamine is metabolized to both active and inactive metabolites by cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6), which is assisted by P450 oxidoreductase CYP2B6 and by P450 oxidoreductase are highly polymorphic, with many genetic variants What This Article Tells Us That Is New Several genetic variants of CYP2B6 and P450 oxidoreductase have diminished ketamine N-demethylation activity Variants do not have altered stereoselectivity of ketamine metabolism Results suggest candidate polymorphisms of CYP2B6 and P450 oxidoreductase for clinical evaluation Background: Human ketamine N-demethylation to norketamine in vitro at therapeutic concentrations is catalyzed predominantly by the cytochrome P4502B6 isoform (CYP2B6). The CYP2B6 gene is highly polymorphic. CYP2B6.6, the protein encoded by the common variant allele CYP2B6*6, exhibits diminished ketamine metabolism in vitro compared with wild-type CYP2B6.1. The gene for cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), an obligatory P450 coenzyme, is also polymorphic. This investigation evaluated ketamine metabolism by genetic variants of human CYP2B6 and POR. Methods: CYP2B6 (and variants), POR (and variants), and cytochrome b5 (wild-type) were coexpressed in a cell system. All CYP2B6 variants were expressed with wild-type POR and b5. All POR variants were expressed with wild-type CYP2B6.1 and b5. Metabolism of R- and S-ketamine enantiomers, and racemic RS-ketamine to norketamine enantiomers, was determined using stereoselective high-pressure liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Michaelis–Menten kinetic parameters were determined. Results: For ketamine enantiomers and racemate, metabolism (intrinsic clearance) was generally wild-type CYP2B6.1 > CYP2B6.4 > CYP2B6.26, CYP2B6.19, CYP2B6.17, CYP2B6.6 > CYP2B6.5, CYP2B6.7 > CYP2B6.9. CYP2B6.16 and CYP2B6.18 were essentially inactive. Activity of several CYP2B6 variants was less than half that of CYP2B6.1. CYP2B6.9 was 15 to 35% that of CYP2B6.1. The order of metabolism was wild-type POR.1 > POR.28, P228L > POR.5. CYP2B6 variants had more influence than POR variants on ketamine metabolism. Neither CYP2B6 nor POR variants affected the stereoselectivity of ketamine metabolism (S > R). Conclusions: Genetic variants of CYP2B6 and P450 oxidoreductase have diminished ketamine N-demethylation activity, without affecting the stereoselectivity of metabolism. These results suggest candidate genetic polymorphisms of CYP2B6 and P450 oxidoreductase for clinical evaluation to assess consequences for ketamine pharmacokinetics, elimination, bioactivation, and therapeutic effects.
Anesthesiology – Wolters Kluwer Health
Published: Oct 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera