PRESENTATION Mary Ellen Sanders, PhD baseline information and methodologies on which the Abstract: Although precise mechanisms responsible for all demon- probiotic ﬁeld can build. strations of probiotic health beneﬁts are not known, many lines of The means with which probiotics impact the micro- evidence suggest that probiotics function through direct or indirect biota populations or activities are numerous. Some impact on colonizing microbiota of the gut. Probiotics can directly probiotics have direct action on microbes through produc- inﬂuence colonizing microbes through multiple mechanisms, tion of bacteriocins and primary and secondary fermenta- including the production of inhibitory compounds (bacteriocins, tion end products, which can inhibit pathogens or provide a short chain fatty acids, and others), by producing substrates that 3,4 means to inﬂuence commensals. Probiotics can inhibit might promote the growth of colonizing microbes (secreted exopolysaccharides, vitamins, fatty acids, sugars from undigested adherence of pathogens through stimulation of epithelial carbohydrates and others), and by promoting immune responses cell mucin production. Probiotics can reinforce the tight against speciﬁc microbes. Indirectly, probiotics can inﬂuence junction between intestinal epithelial cells, reducing the colonizing microbes by inhibiting attachment through stimulated likelihood of bacterial translocation. Probiotics can use mucin production, reinforcing gut barrier eﬀects, and
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology – Wolters Kluwer Health
Published: Nov 1, 2011
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