INTRODUCTIONHepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem causing chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).To date, 10 HBV genotypes have been identified, from A to J, based on a genetic diversity of at least 8% in the viral genome. These genotypes have a distinct geographic distribution worldwide (http://www.who.int/csr/disease/hepatitis/HepatitisB_whocdscsrlyo2002_2.pdf). HBV‐genotype A predominates in Northern Europe and North America, genotypes B and C in central Asia, genotype D in Mediterranean countries, genotype E in sub‐Saharan Africa and in Madagascar, genotype F in South and Central America, genotypes G and H in Mexico and some other countries in Central America and genotypes I and J in Eastern Asia. In particular, genotypes B and C prevails in highly endemic countries where perinatal HBV transmission plays an important role, whereas genotype A is frequent in areas with primarily horizontal transmission (ie, sexual contact). All genotypes are present in countries of immigration with frequencies depending on the ethnicity.A brief summary on the usefulness of serum makers during HBV infectionPresence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum indicates an ongoing HBV infection, acute, or chronic. The serum titre of anti‐HBc IgM (antibody to Hepatitis B core antigen‐HBcAg) may help to
Journal of Medical Virology – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ;
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