Notes 1 The labels “vegan” and “vegetarian” in this essay apply only to moral vegans and moral vegetarians where the distinguishing feature between these is consumption of ovo‐lacto products (sometimes the ban extends to honey). I will ignore vegans and vegetarians for whom these are merely dietary choices that relate to healthy living. 2 John Webster challenges this claim. He claims that free‐roaming breeding is ideal only for a very small number of hens, not in commercial units. His evidence is that about half of the birds in commercial free‐roaming units elect not to leave the house ( Animal Welfare: A Cool Eye Towards Eden , Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd, 1994, 158). Webster's evidence does not support his conclusion: even if birds opt to stay in, that does not imply that such breeding is as bad as battery cages. But I agree with Webster that free‐roaming facilities will probably not be the last word should poultry husbandry be reformed. 3 The tripartite distinction I am now drawing pertains only to eating animals or eating what they “produce.” I will not try to map onto these three orientations attitudes to other aspects of animal welfare, such as one's attitude
Journal of Social Philosophy – Wiley
Published: Sep 1, 2004
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