Periodontitis is a multi‐factorial disease with microbial dental plaque as the initiator of periodontal disease ( 50 ). However, the manifestation and progression of periodontitis is influenced by a wide variety of determinants and factors, including subject characteristics, social and behavioral factors, systemic factors, genetic factors, tooth‐level factors, microbial composition of dental plaque, and other emerging risk factors. With the large array of factors that influence the development and progression of periodontitis, understanding what the relationships of these various factors and determinants are to the initiation and progression of periodontal disease can be daunting. The purpose of this paper is to explain some basic concepts related to understanding periodontal risk factors and the strength of the association of those risk factors to the initiation and progression of periodontal disease and to present a brief overview of risk factors for chronic periodontitis. Terminology, study design, outcome measures, and measures of association are presented as basic concepts necessary for understanding periodontal risk factors. The overview of risk factors is then systematically divided into subject determinants, social and behavioral factors, systemic factors, genetic factors, tooth‐level factors, microbial factors, and emerging risk factors. Terminology In most epidemiological studies, the researcher seeks to
Periodontology 2000 – Wiley
Published: Jun 1, 2003
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