Studies of the motion of a dilute suspension of 100‐micron glass and stainless steel spheres in water flowing turbulently down a pipe revealed that they could be trapped in necklace formations that move slowly at a distance of less than one particle diameter from the wall. The tendency toward trapping increases with particle density and decreases with flow rate. The phenomenon is interpreted as occurring when the Saffman lift force toward the wall overcomes the ability of fluid turbulence to mix the particles. The location of the particles is dictated by a balance between the Saffman lift force and a wall‐induced force associated with the displacement of fluid as a particle moves parallel to the wall.
Aiche Journal – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 1991
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