IntroductionThe acidic property of bleaching agents has the potential to cause adverse effects on enamel surfaces (Hairul Nizam et al. ). Several studies have reported that the penetration of bleaching agents into enamel influences its microhardness, structure and morphology (Bitter , Lee et al. , Bistey et al. ). The increase in surface porosity is attributed to the disruption of proteins within the enamel matrix and the subsequent loss of mineral (Kwon et al. ). Higher concentrations of bleaching agents could induce greater changes and potentially deepen microporosities in the superficial enamel structure as a result of the released hydrogen peroxide (HP; H2O2) (Schiavoni et al. ). In addition, tooth bleaching procedures using light sources may affect the physical and/or chemical properties of enamel surfaces. Consequently, the bleaching method may cause extensive morphological–structural changes to the enamel surfaces (Leandro et al. ). As a result, the surfaces of teeth become rougher and bacterial adhesion to the enamel surface may increase (Flaitz & Hicks ). This increase in surface roughness and bacterial adhesion can lead to dental plaque formation, which increases the likelihood of dental caries and periodontitis (Hosoya et al. ).A tooth bleaching method, whereby plasma is used instead of conventional light sources, has been proposed (Lee
International Endodontic Journal – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ; ; ;
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