INTRODUCTIONIn fall 2017, the National Center for Educational Statistics (, p. 1) reported that approximately 50.7 million K–12 students entered U.S. public elementary and secondary schools. An additional 5.2 million students were expected to matriculate into private schools. While the number of students is growing, “enrollment in teacher education programs is down significantly—falling 35% nationwide in the last five years” (Long, , p. 1). School districts are scrambling to find certified teachers, especially in world languages (WL) (Hanford, ; Koerting, ; Motoko, ). Reverting to former methods, districts are turning to hiring people on emergency credentials; these individuals test ideas by “trial and error, one day at a time” (Gonser, , p. 1). WL is a content area known for a myriad of academic benefits from strengthening cognitive processes (Kormi‐Nouri, Moniri, & Nilsson, ; Stewart, ) to developing students' print awareness (Bialystok, ) and reading ability in the early years (D'Angiulli, Siegel, & Serra, ) to higher academic achievement on standardized tests (Armstrong & Rogers, ; Turnbull, Hart, & Lapkin, ). Having uncertified teachers in the classroom testing hypotheses about teaching and student learning undermines student achievement (Sutcher, Darling‐Hammond, & Carver‐Thomas, ).Unfortunately, in the case of WL teachers, the
Foreign Language Annals – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ;
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