Human Resource Management, January–February 2018, Vol. 57, No. 1. Pp. 11–36
© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com).
Correspondence to: Julia Brennecke, Department of Organisation and Management, University of Liverpool
Management School Chatham Street, Liverpool L69 7ZH, UK, Ph: 0044 7880 835274, email@example.com
Both authors contributed equally to this article.
AND CROSS-LEVEL COMPARISON
JULIA BRENNECKE AND NATALIE STOEMMER
This study examines the generalizability of the network-performance relationship
across individual and group levels, focusing on knowledge-intensive contexts.
Drawing on a meta-analytical approach, we synthesize the results of 102 empir-
ical studies to test whether network characteristics such as centrality, broker-
age, and tie strength similarly inﬂ uence the job performance of individuals and
groups. Results show that while there are no differences in the direction of the
network-performance relationship across levels, there are substantial differences
in magnitude. Individual performance proﬁ ts more strongly from a high num-
ber of direct connections, whereas groups reap higher beneﬁ ts from brokerage
positions. Additional analyses reveal that the network measurement method, tie
content, and performance criteria function as moderators of the network perfor-
mance relationship, but their inﬂ uence is consistent neither across network char-
acteristics nor across levels. By meta-analytically comparing and contrasting the
network-performance relationship for individuals and groups, we contribute to
multilevel research on networks and organizations. Particularly, we move toward
the development of a multilevel homology theory of networks. Implications for
theory, practice, and future research are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Keywords: group network, individual network, job performance, meta- analysis,
esearchers and practitioners alike have
long recognized the beneficial influence
of network embeddedness on perfor-
mance at different organizational levels,
particularly in knowledge-intensive con-
texts (e.g., Burt, 2004; Cross, Kaše, Kilduff, &
King, 2013; Keller, 2001). At the individual level,
recent meta-analytic summaries of several decades
of research have shown that a central network
position, brokerage, and strong ties are crucial
determinants of job performance and innova-
tiveness (Baer, Evans, Oldham, & Boasso, 2015;
Fang et al., 2015). With the rise of teamwork in
organizations, scholars increasingly investigate