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The macrophage and the apoptotic cell: an innate immune interaction viewed simplistically?

The macrophage and the apoptotic cell: an innate immune interaction viewed simplistically? Summary Macrophages play important roles in the clearance of dying and dead cells. Typically, and perhaps simplistically, they are viewed as the professional phagocytes of apoptotic cells. Clearance by macrophages of cells undergoing apoptosis is a non‐phlogistic phenomenon which is often associated with actively anti‐inflammatory phagocyte responses. By contrast, macrophage responses to necrotic cells, including secondarily necrotic cells derived from uncleared apoptotic cells, are perceived as proinflammatory. Indeed, persistence of apoptotic cells as a result of defective apoptotic‐cell clearance has been found to be associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Here we review the mechanisms by which macrophages interact with, and respond to, apoptotic cells. We suggest that macrophages are especially important in clearing cells at sites of histologically visible, high‐rate apoptosis and that, otherwise, apoptotic cells are removed largely by non‐macrophage neighbours. We challenge the view that necrotic cells, including persistent apoptotic cells are, of necessity, proinflammatory and immunostimulatory and suggest that, under appropriate circumstances, persistent apoptotic cells can provide a prolonged anti‐inflammatory stimulus. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Immunology Wiley

The macrophage and the apoptotic cell: an innate immune interaction viewed simplistically?

Immunology , Volume 113 (1) – Sep 1, 2004

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 2004 Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
ISSN
0019-2805
eISSN
1365-2567
DOI
10.1111/j.1365-2567.2004.01959.x
pmid
15312130
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Summary Macrophages play important roles in the clearance of dying and dead cells. Typically, and perhaps simplistically, they are viewed as the professional phagocytes of apoptotic cells. Clearance by macrophages of cells undergoing apoptosis is a non‐phlogistic phenomenon which is often associated with actively anti‐inflammatory phagocyte responses. By contrast, macrophage responses to necrotic cells, including secondarily necrotic cells derived from uncleared apoptotic cells, are perceived as proinflammatory. Indeed, persistence of apoptotic cells as a result of defective apoptotic‐cell clearance has been found to be associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Here we review the mechanisms by which macrophages interact with, and respond to, apoptotic cells. We suggest that macrophages are especially important in clearing cells at sites of histologically visible, high‐rate apoptosis and that, otherwise, apoptotic cells are removed largely by non‐macrophage neighbours. We challenge the view that necrotic cells, including persistent apoptotic cells are, of necessity, proinflammatory and immunostimulatory and suggest that, under appropriate circumstances, persistent apoptotic cells can provide a prolonged anti‐inflammatory stimulus.

Journal

ImmunologyWiley

Published: Sep 1, 2004

References

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