IntroductionSkeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are indispensable for muscle regeneration and repair following injury (Lepper et al. ; McCarthy et al. ; Sambasivan et al. ). In response to a physiological cue (e.g. exercise), SCs activate, proliferate and differentiate, donating nuclei to existing muscle fibres to aid in repair/adaptation, or return to a state of quiescence to replenish the basal SC pool (Bentzinger et al. ; Yin et al. ). The process of SC activation through terminal differentiation is orchestrated by a transcriptional network, known as the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), and is collectively referred to as the myogenic programme. Expansion of the SC pool following a single bout of exercise or muscle fibre contraction‐induced damage has been well characterized in humans (McKay et al. , , , ; Bellamy et al. ; Nederveen et al. ) with appreciable expansion occurring by 24 h and peaking 72 h post‐stimulus (Snijders et al. ).A number of cytokines and growth factors including, but not limited to, interleukin‐6 (IL‐6), insulin‐like growth factor‐1 (IGF‐1), myostatin and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are known regulators of SC progression through the myogenic programme (McKay et al. , ; O'Reilly et al. ). Many of these factors are produced by skeletal muscle in its function as an ‘endocrine organ’ (Steensberg
The Journal of Physiology – Wiley
Published: Jan 15, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ;
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