Received: 15 December 2017 Revised: 14 January 2018 Accepted: 20 January 2018
The in vivo effects of cefazolin, cefuroxime, and cefoperazon
on the carbonic anhydrase in different rat tissues
Health Services Vocational School, Igdır Univer-
sity, Igdır, Turkey
Department of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty,
Van Yuzuncu Yıl University, Van, Turkey
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences,
Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey
In this paper, the in vivo effects of some antibiotics including cefazolin, cefuroxime, and cefoper-
azon, on the activity of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme (CA) in heart, brain, eye, liver, and kidney
tissues of rats were evaluated. For this purpose, 16 different groups, which each containing six
rats (n = 6), were formed (control group, cefazolin groups, cefuroxime groups, and cefoperazon
groups). The rats were necropsied 60 min after the intraperitoneal injection of the chemicals into
the rats. The CA activities were measured for each tissue using esterase activity methods. The
activity values for each tissue obtained were statistically calculated. The CA activities in the liver
tissue were assessed, and the activities of the cefoperazon groups were decreased compared to
the sham groups from the third hour (p < 0.05). In the cefuroxime and cefoperazon groups, the CA
activities in the eye tissue were decreased during the first 3 h and then increased (p < 0.05).
carbonic anhydrase, cefazolin, cefoperazon, cefuroxime, enzyme inhibition
Antibiotics are drugs derived from tendentious or wholly certain
microorganisms that are used as therapy for bacterial infections.
They are not effective against viruses that either stop microorgan-
isms or keep them from reproducing.
The large number of differ-
ent antibiotics commonly accessible can be classified using various
means, e.g., by their microbial origin, mode of action, or chemical
They are also classified by their efficient range. Cefazolin
is an antibiotic from the group of cephalosporin antibiotics, which
are classified as beta-lactam antibiotics.
Cefuroxime is a semisyn-
thetic cephalosporin antibiotic that is chemically similar to penicillin.
Cefoperazone is largely active against Enterobacteriaceae. Its activity
against Staphylococcus aureus is analogous to that of the other novel
cephem antibiotic compounds.
Carbonic anhydrases (CA; E.C.22.214.171.124), a ubiquitous class of zinc-
bound enzymes (metalloenzymes), catalyze the reversible hydration of
carbon dioxide (CO
) and water into bicarbonate (HCO
) and a pro-
This chemical reaction is mandatory in living organisms
for ion transport and for electrolyte water balance.
CA isoenzymes (CAs) are available many tissues, such as the repro-
ductive tract, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, the nervous sys-
tem, eyes, and skin.
CAs have six separate enzyme classes and
genetic types: the -, -, -, -, -, -, and -CA.
ing humans, commonly have -CAs, which is the most common CA
These enzymes participate in diverse metabolic processes
and biochemical factors, such as ureagenesis, gluconeogenesis, and
In humans, 16 different CA isoforms encoded by the
-CA class are currently known. Some of these hCA isoforms, such as
CA I, II, III, VII, and XIII, are cytosolic enzymes; some forms, CA IV, IX,
XII and XIV, are membrane bound; two others, as CA VA and VB, are
mitochondrial and CA VI was found in saliva. The last three forms of
human CA are found to be noncatalytic (CA VIII, X, and XI).
the other hand, CA VIII, X, and XI, the CA-related proteins (CARPs), are
devoid of any catalytic activity.
Furthermore, the cytosolic isoenzymes hCA I and II are both in ery-
throcyte cells, which are indispensable for regulating the physiological
pH of the blood via manufacturing of HCO
hCA II enzyme is associated with multiple diseases, such as glaucoma,
renal tubular acidosis, and osteoporosis.
It is the most largely
characterized and studied of the CA isoenzymes.
Indeed, hCA II
is dependent on various transporters, including the Na
exchanger, and the Na
The hCAs play a role in many physiological processes relevant to
respiration, pH and CO
homeostasis, the transport of CO
electrolyte secretion in diverse organs and tissues, bone remodeling,
biosynthetic reactions, and calcification.
The inhibition of the
hCAs that participate in these activities holds significant potential for
use in the therapy of a number of disturbances, including glaucoma,
edema, epilepsy, obesity, cancer, and pain.
A multitude of chem-
ical ligands have been used for inhibiting CAs, such as bischalcones,
coumarins, and benzenesulfonamides.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2018;32:e22041.
2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 1of7wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jbt