Introduction Coral reefs provide ecosystem goods and services to millions of people around the world ( Cesar et al. 1997 ; Costanza et al. 1997 ). The long‐term sustainability of these ecosystem benefits is threatened, however, by direct overexploitation of coral reef resources, destructive fishing practices, air and water pollution, and climate change ( Wilkinson 2000 ). Traditional efforts to manage coral reefs—species by species, sector by sector—have proven insufficient to ensure resource sustainability or to protect biodiversity against these threats, spurring calls for an ecosystem‐oriented approach ( Botsford et al. 1997 ; Cicin‐Sain & Knecht 1998 ; National Research Council 1999, 2001 ). Central to this ecosystem approach to coral reef management are marine protected areas ( MPAs ), a family of spatially explicit marine management systems that includes underwater parks, fishery reserves, and wildlife sanctuaries ( National Research Council 1999, 2001 ). Coral reef MPAs have yet to realize their full potential. Although the number of coral reef MPAs has grown rapidly in recent years, their performance remains highly variable ( Kelleher et al. 1995 ; Halpern in press; M. G. Pajaro, C. M. Nozawa, M. N. Lavides, and S. Gutierrez. 2000. Status of marine protected
Conservation Biology – Wiley
Published: Apr 1, 2003
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