Red cells from patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are under greater oxidative challenge than those from normal individuals. We postulated that oxidants generated by xanthine oxidase (XO) and hypoxanthine (HO) contribute to the pathogenesis of SCA through altering solute permeability. Sickling, activities of the main red cell dehydration pathways (Psickle, Gardos channel, and KCl cotransporter [KCC]), and cell volume were measured at 100, 30, and 0 mmHg O2, together with deoxygenation‐induced nonelectrolyte hemolysis. Unexpectedly, XO/HO mixtures had mainly inhibitory effects on sickling, Psickle, and Gardos channel activities, while KCC activity and nonelectrolyte hemolysis were increased. Gardos channel activity was significantly elevated in red cells pharmacologically loaded with Ca2+ using the ionophore A23187, consistent with an effect on the transport system per se as well as via Ca2+ entry likely via the Psickle pathway. KCC activity is controlled by several pairs of conjugate protein kinases and phosphatases. Its activity, however, was also stimulated by XO/HO mixtures in red cells pretreated with N‐ethylmaleimide (NEM), which is thought to prevent regulation via changes in protein phosphorylation, suggesting that the oxidants formed could also have direct effects on this transporter. In the presence of XO/HO, red cell volume was better maintained in deoxygenated red cells. Overall, the most notable effect of XO/HO mixtures was an increase in red cell fragility. These findings increase our understanding of the effects of oxidative challenge in SCA patients and are relevant to the behavior of red cells in vivo.
Physiological Reports – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ;
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.
Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera