IntroductionVisual feedback (VF) of body parts has been used as a therapeutic technique to reduce pain and improve function (Thieme et al., , ). Visual feedback has been used in the rehabilitation of conditions where body parts feel large and swollen (e.g. complex regional pain syndrome [CRPS]) or small and withered (e.g. osteoarthritic hands; Boesch et al., ). It is hypothesized that VF techniques facilitate re‐organization of neural circuits to their prepain state (Flor et al., ; Ramachandran and Altschuler, ; Apkarian et al., ; Wand et al., ; Moseley et al., ). For example, Foell et al. () investigated the use of VF for phantom limb pain (PLP) and found that the reduction in severity of PLP correlated with a reduction in dysfunctional reorganization in the somatosensory cortex.Visual feedback techniques include the use of mirrors, virtual reality and real‐time video capture. Generally, a normal‐sized VF of a limb is used, although clinicians have attempted to improve efficacy by minifying the appearance of painfully swollen limbs and magnifying painfully withered limbs (Wittkopf and Johnson, ). Moseley et al. () studied individuals with chronic painful arms and found that magnifying the appearance of their affected arm increased movement‐induced pain, and minifying the appearance of the arm reduced movement‐induced
European Journal of Pain – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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