A questionnaire survey was conducted in Tanzania of 1396 local people living adjacent to Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Tarangire, Lake Manyara, and Mikumi National Parks and the Selous Game Reserve. Over 71% of local people surveyed reported problems with wildlife. The relative frequency of reported conflict with wildlife was significantly and inversely related to human density on lands adjacent to a protected area. Of those local people who reported having problems with wildlife, 86% reported crop damage, while 10% reported the killing of livestock and poultry. The problematic wildlife species also varied significantly with human density. Large animals were more problematic at low human densities, while small animals were more problematic at high human densities. Local people were generally less effective in controlling small‐bodied species than large‐bodied species. The relative frequency of reported success in controlling wildlife varied significantly with human density and was bimodal: local people were less effective in controlling wildlife at lower and higher human densities. This bimodal relationship suggests that, even if all protected areas in Tanzania were abolished, local people would continue to experience problems with wildlife at high human densities. To minimize the conflict between wildlife and local people, land uses associated with low human density that are non‐attractive to wildlife should be encouraged on lands adjacent to protected areas in Tanzania.
Conservation Biology – Wiley
Published: Mar 1, 1994
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