Coal combustion residuals (CCRs) are composed of various constituents, including radioactive materials. The objective of this study was to utilize methodology on radionuclide risk assessment from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to estimate the potential cancer risks associated with residential exposure to CCR‐containing soil. We evaluated potential radionuclide exposure via soil ingestion, inhalation of soil particulates, and external exposure to ionizing radiation using published CCR radioactivity values for 232Th, 228Ra, 238U, and 226Ra from the Appalachia, Illinois, and Powder River coal basins. Mean and upper‐bound cancer risks were estimated individually for each radionuclide, exposure pathway, and coal basin. For each radionuclide at each coal basin, external exposure to ionizing radiation contributed the greatest to the overall risk estimate, followed by incidental ingestion of soil and inhalation of soil particulates. The mean cancer risks by route of exposure were 2.01 × 10−6 (ingestion), 6.80 × 10−9 (inhalation), and 3.66 × 10−5 (external), while the upper bound cancer risks were 3.70 × 10−6 (ingestion), 1.18 × 10−8 (inhalation), and 6.15 × 10−5 (external), using summed radionuclide‐specific data from all locations. The upper bound cancer risk from all routes of exposure was 6.52 × 10−5. These estimated cancer risks were within the EPA's acceptable cancer risk range of 1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−4. If the CCR radioactivity values used in this analysis are generally representative of CCR waste streams, then our findings suggest that CCRs would not be expected to pose a significant radiological risk to residents living in areas where contact with CCR‐containing soils might occur.
Risk Analysis – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ;
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera