Synthesis of gold nanoparticles decorated on sulfonated
three‐dimensional graphene nanocomposite and application
as a highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst
for Ullmann homocoupling of aryl iodides and reduction of
Minoo Dabiri | Seyede Razie Banifatemi Kashi | Noushin Farajinia Lehi | Sahareh Bashiribod
Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti
University, Tehran 1983969411, Islamic
Republic of Iran
Minoo Dabiri, Faculty of Chemistry,
Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran
1983969411, Islamic Republic of Iran.
Gold nanoparticles were decorated onto sulfonated three‐dimensional
H) through spontaneous chemical reduction of HAuCl
H. This nanocomposite exhibited excellent catalytic activity for
the synthesis of symmetric biaryls via the Ullmann homocoupling of aryl
iodides in an aqueous medium. Additionally, this nanocomposite was used as
a catalyst for the reduction of p‐nitrophenol to p‐aminophenol. The catalyst
could be used more than six times successively without significant deactivation.
gold, heterogeneous catalyst, homocoupling, reduction, three‐dimensional graphene
1 | INTRODUCTION
Graphene exhibits a unique combination of physical and
chemical properties such as large specific surface area,
low density, superior electrical conductivity, excellent
thermal stability with oxidation resistance temperature,
high thermal conductivity, remarkable mechanical
strength and excellent optical transmittance, and is
readily chemically functionalized.
shows interesting electrochemical properties, including
wide electrochemical potential windows, low charge‐
transfer resistance, low cost of fabrication and excellent
However, graphene sheets
tend to undergo irreversible restacking arising from the
strong π–π interactions and van der Waals forces, which
tremendously compromises the superiority of the inher-
ent high specific surface area, high conductivity and
mechanical strength of individual graphene sheets.
Many attempts have been made to tackle this
challenge. One effective way is to engineer a graphene
material in which individual graphene sheets are bonded
together to construct three‐dimensional porous networks,
alleviating the restacking of individual graphene sheets.
Three‐dimensional graphene (3DG) is commonly
produced using sol–gel chemistry, which involves the
reducing of graphene oxide (GO) to form a highly cross‐
linked graphene hydrogel, followed by freeze or supercrit-
3DG has excellent properties, including
an ultrahigh surface‐to‐volume ratio, high surface area,
high porosity, low density, good electric conductivity,
strong mechanical strength and fast mass and electron
transport kinetics, which make it an ideal material for
supercapacitors, catalysts, electrochemical biosensors
and anodes in lithium ion batteries.
Additionally, the low water and organic dispersibility of
graphene materials has led to many attempts to increase the
solvent dispersibility of graphene. Recently, a facile route to
isolated and water‐soluble graphene involved the sulfona-
tion of graphene with p‐sulfobenzenediazonium salt.
When graphene sheets incorporate SO
graphitic sheets will separate from one another to some
distance due to electrostatic repulsion.
Received: 9 September 2017 Revised: 23 October 2017 Accepted: 24 October 2017
Appl Organometal Chem. 2018;32:e4189.
Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/aoc 1of11