Stimulant drugs as conditioned and unconditioned stimuli in a classical conditioning paradigm

Stimulant drugs as conditioned and unconditioned stimuli in a classical conditioning paradigm A number of important ways in which drugs interact with learning processes have been identified in studies of the behavioral pharmacology of centrally active drugs. For example, drugs can act as discriminative and as reinforcement stimuli or as unconditioned stimuli eliciting unconditioned responses. Regarding the latter, it has been shown that a number of drug effects can be conditioned to exteroceptive stimuli, providing a mechanism by which drug effects can be transferred from the drug itself to external environment stimulus control. This paper focuses on the development of conditioned drug responses using drug‐induced rotational behavior in rats with unilateral lesions of dopamine neurons. A particularly useful advantage of this model is that the drug‐induced response is mediated by a specific central nervous system (CNS) substrate and the criterion rotational response is unambiguous and easily quantified. Additionally, different drugs can elicit the same response of rotation but in a different direction (i.e., depending on the drug used to induce rotation, ipsilateral or contralateral to the dopamine‐denervated hemisphere). This difference in directionality of drug‐induced rotation provides an opportunity to condition responses to different stimulant drugs differentially, which is not possible in the intact animal, since these drugs tend to evoke similar responses (e.g., hyperactivity or stereotypy). Another advantage of directionality differences in rotational responses associated with different stimulant drugs is that one can assess conditioning interactions between drugs. For example, if one drug that elicits an ipsilateral rotation is paired with another drug that elicits contralateral rotation, then, through a conditioning paradigm of paired drug presentations, one might shift the direction of rotation of the one drug used as the conditioned stimulus to that of the other drug used as the unconditioned stimulus. A number of procedures are described in which the anticholinergic drug scopolamine (which elicits ipsilateral rotation) is paired as the conditioned stimulus with the dopaminergic drug apomorphine (which elicits contralateral rotation) as the unconditioned stimulus, and, as a result, the scopolamine comes to elicit contralateral rotation when subsequently given alone. Observation of such effects points to the importance of drug–drug interactions influenced by Pavlovian conditioning processes. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Drug Development Research Wiley

Stimulant drugs as conditioned and unconditioned stimuli in a classical conditioning paradigm

Drug Development Research, Volume 16 (2‐4) – Jan 1, 1989

Loading next page...
 
/lp/wiley/stimulant-drugs-as-conditioned-and-unconditioned-stimuli-in-a-pe1N7QfgG6
Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 1989 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
ISSN
0272-4391
eISSN
1098-2299
D.O.I.
10.1002/ddr.430160224
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

A number of important ways in which drugs interact with learning processes have been identified in studies of the behavioral pharmacology of centrally active drugs. For example, drugs can act as discriminative and as reinforcement stimuli or as unconditioned stimuli eliciting unconditioned responses. Regarding the latter, it has been shown that a number of drug effects can be conditioned to exteroceptive stimuli, providing a mechanism by which drug effects can be transferred from the drug itself to external environment stimulus control. This paper focuses on the development of conditioned drug responses using drug‐induced rotational behavior in rats with unilateral lesions of dopamine neurons. A particularly useful advantage of this model is that the drug‐induced response is mediated by a specific central nervous system (CNS) substrate and the criterion rotational response is unambiguous and easily quantified. Additionally, different drugs can elicit the same response of rotation but in a different direction (i.e., depending on the drug used to induce rotation, ipsilateral or contralateral to the dopamine‐denervated hemisphere). This difference in directionality of drug‐induced rotation provides an opportunity to condition responses to different stimulant drugs differentially, which is not possible in the intact animal, since these drugs tend to evoke similar responses (e.g., hyperactivity or stereotypy). Another advantage of directionality differences in rotational responses associated with different stimulant drugs is that one can assess conditioning interactions between drugs. For example, if one drug that elicits an ipsilateral rotation is paired with another drug that elicits contralateral rotation, then, through a conditioning paradigm of paired drug presentations, one might shift the direction of rotation of the one drug used as the conditioned stimulus to that of the other drug used as the unconditioned stimulus. A number of procedures are described in which the anticholinergic drug scopolamine (which elicits ipsilateral rotation) is paired as the conditioned stimulus with the dopaminergic drug apomorphine (which elicits contralateral rotation) as the unconditioned stimulus, and, as a result, the scopolamine comes to elicit contralateral rotation when subsequently given alone. Observation of such effects points to the importance of drug–drug interactions influenced by Pavlovian conditioning processes.

Journal

Drug Development ResearchWiley

Published: Jan 1, 1989

Keywords: dopamine; scopolamine; apomorphine; Pavlovian conditioning

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off