Speciﬁc changes of enteric mycobiota and virome
in inﬂammatory bowel disease
Yi CHU, Ming Zuo JIANG, Bing XU, Wei Jie WANG, Di CHEN, Xiao Wei LI, Yu Jie ZHANG & Jie LIANG
State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology & Institute of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military
Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, China
One of the important features of inﬂammatory bowel
disease (IBD) is dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. It
has been well documented that changes in the com-
mensal bacterial population are involved in IBD
development. However, the function of the fungal
and viral communities in IBD remains unclear.
Moreover, the optimal treatment for IBD patients
with opportunistic infections is still undecided. This
review focused on how the enteric mycobiota and
virome changes during the pathogenesis of IBD and
discussed potential treatment strategies that open
new insights into the managements of IBD.
KEY WORDS: dysbiosis, inﬂammatory bowel diseases, mycobiota, virome.
Inﬂammatory bowel disease (IBD), mainly consisting
of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD),
is a complex group of recurrent inﬂammatory disor-
ders affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
incidence rate of IBD has markedly increased, and it
is now becoming a global disease.
environmental risk factors may be involved in the
development of IBD; however, its pathogenesis has
not been fully understood. Considerable develop-
ments in high-throughput technology have been seen
during the past decade, and dysbiosis has been
reported to play an important role in the pathogene-
sis of IBD.
Studies have focused on the changes
in the composition of the bacterial communities in
but the roles of the gut mycobiota
and virome in IBD remain largely unknown. Further-
more, with the increased use of immunomodulators
for IBD treatment, opportunistic fungal and viral
infections have emerged as underlying
In this review we discussed the
hallmark pathology of IBD associated with the host
mycobiota and virome, and tried to propose poten-
tial therapeutic strategies for IBD.
MYCOBIOTA IN IBD
Although fungi constitute only a very small part of the
gut microbiome, the fungal community (mycobiota),
has been shown to contribute actively to GI health and
disease in a complex manner.
McKenzie et al.
found anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae)man-
nan antibodies in patients with IBD, indicating a muta-
genic response to fungi in the human body.
Mycobiome analysis has shown that Candida albicans
(C. albicans)andCandida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis)
constitute most of the fungal community in the
Various studies have conﬁrmed that
gut fungal dysbiosis is associated with IBD.
abundance of C. albicans, Aspergillus clavatus and Crypto-
coccus neoformans was proven to be increased in CD
Consistent with these ﬁndings, most
Correspondence to: Jie LIANG, State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology &
Institute of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical
University, 127 West Changle Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710032,
China. Email: email@example.com
Conﬂict of interest: None.
Accepted for publication 17 December 2017.
© 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese
Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Afﬁliated to Shanghai
Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons
Journal of Digestive Diseases 2018; 19; 2–7 doi: 10.1111/1751-2980.12570