AbbreviationsALPalkaline phosphataseB.Ar/T.Arbone area/total areaBICbone‐implant contactBMDbone mineral densityBMMbone marrow‐derived macrophageBV/TVbone volume/total volumeConn.Dconnective densityCTX‐1type I collagen cross‐linked C‐terminal telopeptideIKKβIκB kinase βM‐CSFmacrophage colony‐stimulating factorNFATc1nuclear factor of activated T cells c1OCNosteocalcinPFAparaformaldehydeRANKLreceptor activator of NF‐κB ligandROIregion of interestRUNX2runt‐related transcription factor 2SEMscanning electron microscopeSMIstructural model indexSPCsophocarpineTAK1transforming growth factors‐β‐activated kinase 1Tb.Ntrabecular numberTb.Sptrabecular separationTb.Thtrabecular thicknessTBSTtris‐buffered saline tween‐20TJAtotal joint arthroplastyTRAPtartrate‐resistant acid phosphataseUHMWPEultra‐high molecular weight polyethyleneIntroductionAseptic implant loosening is one of the most common complications of long‐term total joint arthroplasty (TJA), which would eventually require a revision surgery. There were 38 310 hip and 16 711 knee revision surgeries performed in the UK due to aseptic loosening, between April 1, 2003 and December 31, 2015 (Porter, ). This is generally considered to be caused by an adverse response to implant‐derived wear particles emanating from material components, including ultra‐high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and metal biomaterials (Jiang et al., ; Gallo et al., ; Pajarinen et al., ). These wear particles stimulate the secretion of chemokines and pro‐inflammatory cytokines, including TNF‐α, IL‐1β, IL‐6, IL‐11 and PGE2, which may provoke a local inflammatory reaction that increases osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, resulting in periprosthetic osteolysis, dense pseudomembrane formation and reduced implant fixation properties (Ingham and Fisher, ; Holt et al., ; Purdue et al.,
British Journal of Pharmacology – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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