Some genetic consequences of ice ages, and their role in divergence and speciation

Some genetic consequences of ice ages, and their role in divergence and speciation The genetic effects of pleistocene ice ages are approached by deduction from paleoenvironmental information, by induction from the genetic structure of populations and species, and by their combination to infer likely consequences. (1) Recent palaeoclimatic information indicate rapid global reversals and changes in ranges of species which would involve elimination with spreading from the edge. Leading edge colonization during a rapid expansion would be leptokurtic and lead to homozygosity and spatial assortment of genomes. In Europe and North America, ice age contractions were into southern refugia, which would promote genome reorganization. (2) The present day genetic structure of species shows frequent geographic subdivision, with parapatric genomes, hybrid zones and suture zones. A survey of recent DNA phylogeographic information supports and extends earlier work. (3) The grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus is used to illustrate such data and processes. Its range in Europe is divided on DNA sequences into five parapatric races, with southern genomes showing greater haplotype diversity ‐ probably due to southern mountain blocks acting as refugia and northern expansion reducing diversity. (4) Comparison with other recent studies shows a concordance of such phylogeographic data over pleistocene time scales. (5) The role that ice age range changes may have played in changing adaptations is explored, including the limits of range, rapid change in new invasions and refugial differentiation in a variety of organisms. (6) The effects of these events in causing divergence and speciation are explored using Chorthippus as a paradigm. Repeated contraction and expansion would accumulate genome differences and adaptations, protected from mixing by hybrid zones, and such a composite mode of speciation could apply to many organisms. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Biological Journal of the Linnean Society Wiley

Some genetic consequences of ice ages, and their role in divergence and speciation

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 1996 Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
ISSN
0024-4066
eISSN
1095-8312
DOI
10.1111/j.1095-8312.1996.tb01434.x
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The genetic effects of pleistocene ice ages are approached by deduction from paleoenvironmental information, by induction from the genetic structure of populations and species, and by their combination to infer likely consequences. (1) Recent palaeoclimatic information indicate rapid global reversals and changes in ranges of species which would involve elimination with spreading from the edge. Leading edge colonization during a rapid expansion would be leptokurtic and lead to homozygosity and spatial assortment of genomes. In Europe and North America, ice age contractions were into southern refugia, which would promote genome reorganization. (2) The present day genetic structure of species shows frequent geographic subdivision, with parapatric genomes, hybrid zones and suture zones. A survey of recent DNA phylogeographic information supports and extends earlier work. (3) The grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus is used to illustrate such data and processes. Its range in Europe is divided on DNA sequences into five parapatric races, with southern genomes showing greater haplotype diversity ‐ probably due to southern mountain blocks acting as refugia and northern expansion reducing diversity. (4) Comparison with other recent studies shows a concordance of such phylogeographic data over pleistocene time scales. (5) The role that ice age range changes may have played in changing adaptations is explored, including the limits of range, rapid change in new invasions and refugial differentiation in a variety of organisms. (6) The effects of these events in causing divergence and speciation are explored using Chorthippus as a paradigm. Repeated contraction and expansion would accumulate genome differences and adaptations, protected from mixing by hybrid zones, and such a composite mode of speciation could apply to many organisms.

Journal

Biological Journal of the Linnean SocietyWiley

Published: Jul 1, 1996

Keywords: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

References

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