INTRODUCTIONAttention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder seen in about 3.4% of children and adolescents worldwide (Polanczyk, Salum, Sugaya, Caye, & Rohde, ). The prevalence rate of ADHD varies from 1.0% in Germany to 7.4% in Great Britain (Štuhec, Švab, & Locatelli, ). Polanczyk et al. () found ADHD to have similar prevalence rates in Europe and North America. Dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in the pharmacological mechanisms of psychostimulants. The dopamine transporter (DAT1) is a protein encoded by SLC6A3 (located on chromosome 5p15.3). Methylphenidate (MPH) is known to improve ADHD symptoms by inhibiting the dopamine transporter responsible for dopamine reuptake from the synaptic cleft into presynaptic terminals. MPH inhibits the reuptake of monoamines, such as dopamine and noradrenaline, and increases the synaptic and extrasynaptic concentrations of these neurotransmitters (Madhusoodanan & Goia, ). Stimulation of the non‐vesicular release and inhibition of monoamine oxidase A activity have also been reported. Moreover, MPH prolongs postsynaptic and presynaptic receptor interactions (Dinis‐Oliveira, ). However, MPH is effective in about 70% of ADHD children (Bolea‐Alamañac et al., ; Hodgkins, Shaw, Coghill, & Hechtman, ). While the reasons for this response variability among patients are unclear, they are likely to be multifactorial (Adler,
American Journal of Medical Genetics – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ; ; ;
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