We present two methods for determining the sentiment expressed by a movie review. The semantic orientation of a review can be positive, negative, or neutral. We examine the effect of valence shifters on classifying the reviews. We examine three types of valence shifters: negations, intensifiers, and diminishers. Negations are used to reverse the semantic polarity of a particular term, while intensifiers and diminishers are used to increase and decrease, respectively, the degree to which a term is positive or negative. The first method classifies reviews based on the number of positive and negative terms they contain. We use the General Inquirer to identify positive and negative terms, as well as negation terms, intensifiers, and diminishers. We also use positive and negative terms from other sources, including a dictionary of synonym differences and a very large Web corpus. To compute corpus‐based semantic orientation values of terms, we use their association scores with a small group of positive and negative terms. We show that extending the term‐counting method with contextual valence shifters improves the accuracy of the classification. The second method uses a Machine Learning algorithm, Support Vector Machines. We start with unigram features and then add bigrams that consist of a valence shifter and another word. The accuracy of classification is very high, and the valence shifter bigrams slightly improve it. The features that contribute to the high accuracy are the words in the lists of positive and negative terms. Previous work focused on either the term‐counting method or the Machine Learning method. We show that combining the two methods achieves better results than either method alone.
Computational Intelligence – Wiley
Published: May 1, 2006
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