Received: 3 December 2017 Revised: 24 December 2017 Accepted: 27 December 2017
Sauchinone prevents IL-1-induced inflammatory response
in human chondrocytes
First Department of Orthopedics, The Fourth
Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University,
Shenyang 110032, People's Republic of China
Comprehensive surgical, Shenyang Orthopedic
Hospital, Shenyang 110044, People's Republic of
Department of Orthopedics, The First Peo-
ple's Hospital of Shenyang, Shenyang 110041,
People's Republic of China
Sauchinone is one of the active lignan isolated from Saururus chinensis, which has been considered
to possess various pharmacological activities, such as antitumor, hepatoprotective, antioxidant,
and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the functional roles of sauchinone in interleukin-1 beta
(IL-1)-stimulated human osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes are still unknown. Thus, in this study,
we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of sauchinone in IL-1-stimulated chondrocytes.
Our results demonstrated that sauchinone significantly attenuated NO and PGE2 production, as
well as inhibited iNOS and COX-2 expression in IL-1-stimulated OA chondrocytes. In addition,
sauchinone efficiently inhibited IL-1-induced MMP-3 and MMP-13 release in human OA chon-
drocytes. Furthermore, sauchinone significantly attenuated the activation of NF-B in human OA
chondrocytes. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that sauchinone inhibited inflammatory
response in IL-1-stimulated human chondrocytes probably through inhibiting the activation of
NF-B signaling pathway. These data suggest that sauchinone may be a potential agent in the
treatment of OA.
chondrocyte, inflammatory response, osteoarthritis, sauchinone
Osteoarthritis (OA), a highly prevalent and debilitating joint disorder,
is characterized by progressive articular cartilage damage, subchon-
dral bone sclerosis, and synovitis, resulting in severe joint pain and irre-
versible loss of joint function.
It occurs mainly in the elderly and the
prevalence of OA increases dramatically in people over the age of 50.
There is no effective medical therapy for OA because its pathogenesis
is poorly elucidated.
Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-)
and interleukin-1 (IL-1), play important roles in the pathogene-
sis of OA.
During OA, excessive production of pro-inflammatory
cytokines promotes cartilage matrix degradation and destruction of
Therefore, inhibition of inflammatory cytokines
may be an effective way to alleviate the progression of OA.
Sauchinone (the chemical structure is shown in Figure 1A) is one
of the active lignan isolated from Saururus chinensis, which has been
used as a traditional Oriental medicine to treat fever, jaundice, and
various inflammatory diseases.
Increasing evidences have reported
that sauchinone possesses various pharmacological activities, such
as antitumor, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory
For example, Bae et al.
reported that sauchinone
could inhibit TNF- expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated
RAW264.7 cells. However, the functional roles of sauchinone in IL-1-
stimulated human OA chondrocytes are still unknown. Thus, in this
study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of sauchinone,
and the underlying mechanism in IL-1-stimulated chondrocytes. Our
results showed that sauchinone prevented IL-1-induced inflamma-
tory response in human chondrocytes through suppressing the activa-
tion of NF-B signaling pathway.
2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
Tissue samples and cell culture
This study was approved by the Ethics Committees of the Fourth
Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University (China). Informed con-
sent was written and obtained from all patients in our study. Artic-
ular cartilage samples were obtained from five female OA patients
(61.7 ± 4.5 years of age, mean ± SD) undergoing total knee replace-
ment. Human chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage
as previously described.
The harvested cartilage was minced into
small pieces and incubated in a 0.25% trypsin-containing solution for
C. The tissue slices were then incubated with 0.2% col-
lagenase (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) at 37
C overnight. After digestion,
the chondrocytes were collected and cultured in Dulbecco's modified
Eagle's medium (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) containing 10% fetal bovine
serum (Gibco, Rockville, MD), 100 U/mL penicillin, and 100 g/mL
J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2018;32:e22033.
2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 1of5wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jbt