AbbreviationsCFAcomplete Freund's adjuvantRGSregulator of G protein signallingFSTforced swim testNTGnitroglycerinIntroductionGPCRs are a diverse family of membrane bound receptors that regulate a wide array of biological functions. Canonically, GPCRs regulate these processes through activation of G proteins which subsequently interact with a variety of downstream effectors. Following agonist activation, a GPCR is phosphorylated by GPCR kinases and internalized following recruitment of arrestins. In recent years, it has become apparent that GPCRs can signal through G protein‐independent mechanisms (Galandrin et al., ) by directly recruiting arrestins that can also promote signalling from GPCRs (Reiter et al., ). Furthermore, ligands that act at the same orthosteric site on a receptor can stabilize distinct active conformations that preferentially signal through distinct G protein or arrestin subtypes. This phenomenon, known as functional selectivity or biased agonism, has been observed with many GPCRs including the β2 adrenoceptor (Drake et al., ), the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (Hudson et al., ), as well as μ‐, κ‐ and δ‐opioid receptors (Pradhan et al., ).The δ opioid receptor (δ‐receptor) is a class A GPCR and interacts with Gαi/o proteins. Activation of the δ‐receptor in rodents has been shown to produce antinociception, antihyperalgesia, anxiolytic effects and antidepressant‐like effects without the constipation,
British Journal of Pharmacology – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera