INTRODUCTIONPlaque formation of oral bacteria induces an inflammatory response resulting in osteoclast activation and the consequent destruction of tooth‐supporting tissue. In addition to the immune–inflammatory process of periodontal tissue destruction, excess occlusal forces loaded onto the tooth also result in alveolar bone resorption, which is known as trauma from occlusion (TO).Trauma from occlusion is defined as an injury that occurs in the supportive periodontium as a consequence of forces exceeding the periodontal potential required for functional adaptation. TO may be caused by alterations in occlusal forces, designated as primary TO, by a reduced capacity of the periodontium to withstand occlusal forces, designated as secondary TO, or both. Clinical signs of TO include a widening of the periodontal ligament space, angular bony defects of the proximal surface, increased mobility, and increased radiolucency in the furcation area (Glickman, Stein, & Smulow, ) irrespective of the TO being primary or secondary.Although it has been demonstrated that traumatic occlusal forces do not cause gingivitis or periodontal pockets (Ramfjord & Ash, ), clinical attachment level (Jin & Cao, ), or gingival recession (Davies, Gray, Linden, & James, ; Harrel & Nunn, ; Kawamoto & Nagaoka, ), progression of already‐present periodontitis may be accelerated. Furthermore,
Oral Diseases – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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