Detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are commonly used to extract cells from tissues in a process called “decellularization”. Residual SDS is difficult to completely remove and may lead to an undesirable host response towards an implanted biomaterial. In this study, we developed a modification for SDS cell extraction from muscle equally efficient to previous methods but leading to significantly less residual SDS remnants in the matrices. Muscle‐derived matrices were prepared via 2 SDS‐based decellularization methods, which led to removal of either 81.4% or 98.4% of the SDS. In vitro, matrices were seeded with thp1 macrophages and primary human foreskin fibroblasts. By Day 2, both matrices demonstrated similar macrophage polarization; however, fibroblasts cultured on matrices with greater residual SDS expressed higher levels of mRNA associated with fibroblast activation: α‐smooth muscle actin and connective tissue growth factor. In vivo, Collagen I gels spiked with increasing concentrations of SDS displayed a corresponding decrease in cell infiltration when implanted subcutaneously in rats after 4 days. Finally, as a model for muscle regeneration, matrices produced by each method were implanted in rat latissimus dorsi defects. At POD 30 greater levels of IL‐1β mRNA were present in defects treated with matrices containing higher levels of SDS, indicating a more severe inflammatory response. Although matrices containing higher levels of residual SDS became encapsulated by POD 30 and showed evidence of a foreign body response, matrices with the lower levels of SDS integrated into the defect area with lower levels of inflammatory and fibrosis‐related gene expression.
Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
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