As part of a study on the microbiology of chlorate reduction, several new dissimilatory chlorate‐reducing bacteria were isolated from a broad diversity of environments. One of these, strain CKB, was selected for a more complete characterization. Strain CKB was enriched and isolated from paper mill waste with acetate as the sole electron donor and chlorate as the sole electron acceptor. Strain CKB is a completely oxidizing, non‐fermentative, Gram‐negative, facultative anaerobe. Cells of strain CKB are 0.5 × 2 μm and are highly motile, with a single polar flagellum. In addition to acetate, strain CKB can use propionate, butyrate, lactate, succinate, fumarate, malate or yeast extract as electron donors, with chlorate as the sole electron acceptor. Strain CKB can also couple chlorate reduction to the oxidation of ferrous iron, sulphide, or the reduced form of the humic substances analogue 2,6‐anthrahydroquinone disulphonate. Fe(II) is oxidized to insoluble amorphous Fe(III) oxide, whereas sulphide is oxidized to elemental sulphur. Growth is not associated with this metabolism, even when small quantities of acetate are added as a potential carbon source. In addition to chlorate, strain CKB can also couple acetate oxidation to the reduction of oxygen or perchlorate. Chlorate is completely reduced to chloride. Strain CKB has an optimum temperature of 35°C, a pH optimum of 7.5 and a salinity optimum of 1% NaCl. Strain CKB can grow in chlorate and perchlorate concentrations of 80 or 20 mM respectively. Under anaerobic conditions, strain CKB can dismutate chlorite into chloride and O2, and is only the second organism shown to be capable of this metabolism. Oxidized minus reduced spectra of whole‐cell suspensions of strain CKB showed absorbance maxima at 423, 523 and 552 nm, which are indicative of the presence of c‐type cytochrome(s). Analysis of the complete sequence of the 16S rDNA indicates that strain CKB is a member of the beta subclass of the Proteobacteria. The phototroph Rhodocyclus tenuis is the closest known relative. When tested, strain CKB could not grow by phototrophy and did not contain bacteriochlorophyll. Phenotypically and phylogenetically, strain CKB differs from all other described bacteria and represents the type strain of a new genus and species.
Environmental Microbiology – Wiley
Published: Aug 1, 1999
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