1701212 (1 of 19)
2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Recent Progress in Porous Graphene and Reduced
Graphene Oxide-Based Nanomaterials for
Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices
Wytse Hooch Antink, Yejung Choi, Kwang-dong Seong, Jong Min Kim,
and Yuanzhe Piao*
distribution, and electrical conductivity.
Although most of the above mentioned
materials display high SSA, the low con-
ductivity limits their application in high
efﬁciency energy storage devices. As for
CNTs, despite their high electrical conduc-
tivity and large SSA, the intrinsic impuri-
ties caused by catalyst reactions and high
cost hamper their efﬁcient use.
In this sense, graphene is an excellent
alternative to conventional carbon elec-
trode materials. Graphene possesses supe-
rior physicochemical stability, electrical
conductivity, and larger theoretical spe-
ciﬁc surface area than most conventional
carbon materials. Additionally, it also has
excellent ﬂexibility and tensile strength,
beneﬁcial for possible applications in
make graphene-based nanomaterials the ideal electrode mate-
rial for electrochemical devices, such as batteries or superca-
pacitors, which are used in micro-electromechanical systems,
electric vehicles, portable electronic devices, etc.
For the purpose of this article, a wider deﬁnition of
“graphene” will be used that includes reduced graphene oxide
(rGO) as well. Over the last decade, numerous electrode mate-
rials based on graphene have been investigated and tested for
cycle stability and their speciﬁc capacity.
serious research efforts in graphene-based electrochemical
energy storage devices, the market demand for higher perfor-
mance is steadily increasing. In the case of lithium-ion bat-
teries, lithium ions have to make a big detour to reach the elec-
trolyte since they cannot pass through the 2D graphene sheets.
This results in a long diffusion distance and consequently
a slow charge–discharge rate for lithium-ion batteries.
Supercapacitors can store electrical charge proportional to the
surface area of their conductive material, which makes gra-
phene with a theoretical speciﬁc surface of 2600 m
sheet a very promising option.
Unfortunately, the widespread
use of supercapacitors is limited due to the high effective series
resistance and low energy storage density. Additionally, the ten-
dency of graphene sheets to aggregate greatly reduces the real
accessible surface area.
The aforementioned problems can be addressed by modi-
fying the graphene sheets to give them a porous structure,
which reduces the ion diffusion pathway and increases the
Graphene-based nanocomposites are characterized by high mechanical
strength, excellent electrical conductivity, and outstanding thermal and
chemical stability. Additionally, the combination of versatile functionaliza-
tion chemistry and simplicity of large-scale synthesis makes graphene ideal
for electrode materials for energy storage devices. To improve the electro-
chemical performance even further, recent research has focused on the
preparation of porous graphene structures, either by creating holes in the
graphene sheets or by assembling them into a 3D porous framework. Porous
graphene and reduced graphene oxide allow for rapid ion diffusion and
display high real surface area. In this review paper, the conventional methods
for the preparation of porous graphene are summarized and recent progress
in porous graphene-based nanomaterials for electrochemical energy storage
devices is discussed.
Hall of Fame Article
The discovery of graphene has led to substantial research
endeavors into its properties and possible synthesis methods.
Due to its honeycomb carbon lattice that consists of only a
single layer, graphene-based nanomaterials possess unique
properties and show great potential for many kinds of applica-
Especially, the increasing demand for better storage
devices with enhanced performance such as high power den-
sity, energy density, and cycle stability has driven researches to
focus on using graphene-based materials for electrochemical
Various porous carbon materials such as activated carbon,
mesoporous carbon, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), aerogels, and
carbide-derived carbons are often used as electrodes.
Several crucial factors to achieve high performing elec-
trodes include high speciﬁc surface area (SSA), pore size and
W. Hooch Antink, Y. Choi, K.-d. Seong, J. M. Kim, Prof. Y. Piao
Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology
Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology
Seoul National University
Suwon 16229, Republic of Korea
The ORCID identiﬁcation number(s) for the author(s) of this article
can be found under https://doi.org/10.1002/admi.201701212.
Adv. Mater. Interfaces 2018, 5, 1701212