Received: 10 April 2017 Revised: 29 August 2017 Accepted: 5 October 2017
Real-time implementation of optimal control considering
gear shifting and engine starting for parallel hybrid
electric vehicle based on dynamic programming
Jiangtao Fu Shuzhong Song Zhumu Fu Jianwei Ma
Electronic Information Engineering,
Henan University of Science and
Technology, Luoyang, China
Jiangtao Fu, Electronic Information
Engineering, Henan University of Science
and Technology, Luoyang 471023, China.
National Natural Science Foundation of
China, Grant/Award Number: 61473115
To achieve best fuel economy control for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle, opti-
mized control based on dynamic programming (DP) is proposed. The main effort
in this paper includes the following. First, the global optimal control math-
ematic model of the best fuel economy is constructed and its corresponding
recursive equation is established. Second, 2 additional augmented cost functions
are proposed to prevent frequent gear shifting and frequent engine stopping and
starting. Third, an algorithm of restricting the exploring region is proposed to
overcome the curse of dimensionality of the numerical DP, which can greatly
reduce the computational complexity. Both this DP method and a simple thresh-
old control in corporation of a standby optimization are applied to a vehicle
manufactured by the Changan company on the Federal Test Program driving
cycle. The results show that the proposed method is effective in reducing fuel
consumption by 15%. Although the proposed DP method is implemented on a
priori known driving cycle, it can provide a criterion to design and evaluate a
control strategy to achieve better fuel consumption.
dynamic programming (DP), energy management, fuel consumption, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV),
Despite vehicles have been mainly driven by internal combustion engine (ICE) for more than 100 years, more efforts
started being pursued to find alternative powertrain architectures or effective control strategy to reduce environment
pollution and improve energy savings.
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) accompanying a fuel-driven power source with
an electric drive train allow ICE to work under a high-efficiency condition, which means that the engines do not work at
idling and low-load condition.
Hence, it has been an interest for many scholars to focus on the study of fuel consumption
efficiency of the vehicles.
A lot of previous research studies have shown significant results on the improvement of the total efficiency to reduce
the fuel consumption. Two important questions were always considered when exploiting the control strategy for a par-
allel HEV. (i) What is the best performance (including power performance, fuel economy, and emission) that a certain
configuration plug-in HEV (PHEV) can achieve? (ii) When a control strategy is applied into this PHEV, up to what extent
the actual performance can approach the best performance?
Optim Control Appl Meth. 2018;39:757–773. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/oca Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 757