Researchers have noted that upward influence tactics are often used in varying patterns and combinations (e.g. Yukl and Falbe, 1990). This study investigated whether influence strategies representing hard, soft, or rational approaches to influence behavior would emerge in relation to upward influence tactics of assertiveness, rationality, coalition, upward appeal, ingratiation, and exchange. Hypotheses were offered concerning the relations of selected demographic, individual difference, relational, and opportunity factors to these strategies. The 225 participants were full‐time employees of a national non‐profit organization. Second‐order factor analysis provided some support for the dimensionalization of upward influence tactics as representing hard, soft, and rational strategies. Each strategy was related to a unique set of predictors. The results suggest a higher level of complexity for influence strategies than previously expected. The implications of this study, as well as fruitful areas for future research, are discussed. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Journal of Organizational Behavior – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 1997
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