Seals of approval have been part of the competitive environment for decades and, properly used, aid consumers by substituting unbiased professional expertise for consumers' lack of knowledge regarding product claims. This paper analyzes use of seals of approval as fund‐raising and competitive devices to determine if seals of approval for food offer the same public good as product endorsements. The authors conclude that seals of approval for food, as exemplified by the American Heart Association's HeartGuide Seal, may not be in the best interests of consumers.
Journal of Consumer Affairs – Wiley
Published: Dec 1, 1993
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