INTRODUCTIONWild ungulates of the Palearctic realm are experiencing an ongoing increase in their geographical distribution. Particularly, the members of the Cervidae family, such as the red deer (Cervus elaphus) and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), are increasingly ubiquitous and abundant in most European countries (Apollonio, Andersen, & Putman, ). Various factors have been involved in the demographic burgeoning of these species, such as socioeconomic changes (e.g., rural exodus and abandonment of traditional agricultural practices), re‐naturalization of the habitats, reintroduction programs for both conservation and hunting purposes, the ongoing decrease in the number of hunters and the common practice of supplemental feeding, especially in hunting managed areas (e.g., Acevedo et al., ; Milner, Van Beest, Schmidt, Brook, & Storaas, ; Putman, Apollonio, & Andersen, ; Valente, Valente, Fonseca, & Torres, ). The decline in number and distribution of large terrestrial carnivores due to human persecution is also frequently referred as an important cause for the rise of wild ungulate populations (Jędrzejewski, Apollonio, Jędrzejewska, & Kojola, ). Although the human hunting of wild ungulates could control the population size (see Quirós‐Fernández, Marcos, Acevedo, & Gortázar, ), this activity is not able to reproduce the indirect effects of natural predation on population dynamics
Diversity and Distributions – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ; ; ;
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