wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/phpp Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2018;34:122–129.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Accepted: 26 September 2017
Prevalence and predictors of sunburn among beachgoers
Magdalena de Troya-Martín
| María Victoria de Gálvez-Aranda
| Nuria Blázquez-Sánchez
| Maria Teresa Fernández-Morano
| Enrique Herrera-Ceballos
Servicio de Dermatología, Hospital Costa del
Sol, Marbella, Spain
Cátedra de Dermatología, Universidad de
Málaga, Málaga, Spain
Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Costa del
Sol, Marbella, Spain
Red de Investigación en Servicios de Salud en
Enfermedades Crónicas (REDISSEC)
Magdalena de Troya Martín, Directora de
Área de Dermatología, Hospital Costa del Sol,
Hospital Costa del Sol
Background: Painful sunburns at any age are one of the main risk factors for skin
Objectives: To determine the prevalence and predictors of sunburn among
Methods: A cross- sectional health survey was conducted at the beach during the sum-
mer. Adults >18 years with an understanding of Spanish were interviewed using a
questionnaire about behaviours, attitudes and knowledge related to sun exposure at
the beach. A descriptive analysis was performed, and a log- binomial regression model
was used to determine predictors of sunburn.
Results: The survey was completed by 1054 beachgoers, with a mean age of 43.8 (SD:
18.7) years, 61.2% women, skin phototypes
(30.2%). 46.9% of responders reported at least one painful sunburn during the previ-
ous summer. Age, sex, education, skin phototype, midday sun exposure, sun protec-
tion habits, attitudes towards tanning and knowledge about skin cancer were identified
as independent predictors of sunburn.
Conclusions: It is necessary to develop photoprotection campaigns aimed at beachgo-
ers, particularly in young people, men, those with skin phototypes I- III and secondary
or university education. Educational strategies should be aimed at discouraging sun
exposure at midday, changing attitudes towards tanning and improving knowledge
about skin cancer.
attitudes, beachgoers, knowledge and behaviors, sun protection, sunburn
1 | INTRODUCTION
The global incidence of skin cancer is rising at an annual rate of 3%-
Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer in the white
population and one of the most costly malignancies for the US
Cutaneous melanoma is increasing more rapidly
than any other malignancy in the United States and nowadays ranks
only second to adult leukaemia in terms of loss of years of potential
life, per death.
The incidence of skin cancer in Spain has increased
at rates similar to those reported elsewhere in the world, with the
number of new cases tripling between 1978 and 2002.
interacting factors underlie this epidemiological situation, including an
ageing population, depletion of the ozone layer and lifestyle changes.
However, the main avoidable cause of skin cancer is generally con-
sidered to be excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, either
from the sun or from artificial sources.
Two high- risk patterns of sun
exposure, acute intermittent recreational and chronic occupational
exposure, have been described.
Painful sunburn at any age has been