Neonatal sepsis is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality during the neonatal period. Neonatal sepsis is classified as either early‐onset sepsis (EOS; ≤7 days after birth) or late‐onset sepsis (LOS; >7 days after birth). Advances in obstetric and neonatal care have decreased the incidence of neonatal sepsis, especially EOS. Currently, the incidence of group B Streptococcus‐specific EOS has declined to 0.3–0.4 cases/1,000 live births, and overall the EOS incidence has declined to 0.8–1.0 cases/1,000 live births. Nevertheless, EOS remains a severe life‐threatening disease with a mortality rate ranging from 1.5% in term infants to almost 40% in very low‐birthweight infants. Early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal sepsis are important to prevent severe complications. In this era of multi‐resistant microorganisms, however, it is also important to avoid the unnecessary use of antibiotics in sepsis‐negative infants. On the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010 guidelines, Escobar et al. reported that, in a cohort of 7,004 infants, 13% of both well‐appearing and ill‐appearing infants were evaluated for EOS, and 11% were treated empirically with antibiotics, although only 0.04% of the cohort had blood culture‐confirmed infection. Concern has arisen regarding the EOS results and the empirical antibiotic treatment of hundreds
Pediatrics International – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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