Precipitation chemistry in and ionic loading to an Alpine Basin, Sierra Nevada

Precipitation chemistry in and ionic loading to an Alpine Basin, Sierra Nevada Wet deposition of solutes to an alpine catchment in the southern Sierra Nevada was measured from October 1984 through March 1988. Rainfall had a volume‐weighted pH of 4.9, and snowfall had a volume‐weighted pH of 5.3. Acetic and formic acids were important components of all wet deposition, contributing 25–30% of the measured anions in snowfall and, through analysis of charge balance deficits, the same percentage in rainfall. The NO3− to SO42− equivalent ratio for all wet deposition was 1.16. Ammonium concentration was tenfold greater than H+ in rainfall; ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate appear to be the principal nitrate and sulfate containing aerosols in wet deposition. Snowmelt runoff (1985 and 1986) or snowpack runoff plus rainfall during the period of snowpack runoff (1987) supplied 90% of the annual solute flux from wet deposition to the catchment. The amount of snow water equivalence (mm m−2) and H+, SO42−, and Cl− (eq m−2) in cumulative snowfall measured on snowboards was similar to the accumulated deposition of these parameters measured in snowpils at midwinter and during maximum snow accumulation periods, while about 20% of the NO3− in snowfall was not stored in the winter snowpack. Dry deposition was therefore not an important contributor of H+, NO3−, and SO42− to the winter snowpack. The source of the ions in snowfall was air masses that originated over the Pacific Ocean, while low Cl− and Na+ relative to NO3− and NH4+ in rainfall indicate that local urban and agricultural areas were the major source of the ions in rainfall. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Water Resources Research Wiley

Precipitation chemistry in and ionic loading to an Alpine Basin, Sierra Nevada

Loading next page...
 
/lp/wiley/precipitation-chemistry-in-and-ionic-loading-to-an-alpine-basin-sierra-sctbe0YNo2
Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 1991 by the American Geophysical Union.
ISSN
0043-1397
eISSN
1944-7973
DOI
10.1029/90WR02773
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Wet deposition of solutes to an alpine catchment in the southern Sierra Nevada was measured from October 1984 through March 1988. Rainfall had a volume‐weighted pH of 4.9, and snowfall had a volume‐weighted pH of 5.3. Acetic and formic acids were important components of all wet deposition, contributing 25–30% of the measured anions in snowfall and, through analysis of charge balance deficits, the same percentage in rainfall. The NO3− to SO42− equivalent ratio for all wet deposition was 1.16. Ammonium concentration was tenfold greater than H+ in rainfall; ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate appear to be the principal nitrate and sulfate containing aerosols in wet deposition. Snowmelt runoff (1985 and 1986) or snowpack runoff plus rainfall during the period of snowpack runoff (1987) supplied 90% of the annual solute flux from wet deposition to the catchment. The amount of snow water equivalence (mm m−2) and H+, SO42−, and Cl− (eq m−2) in cumulative snowfall measured on snowboards was similar to the accumulated deposition of these parameters measured in snowpils at midwinter and during maximum snow accumulation periods, while about 20% of the NO3− in snowfall was not stored in the winter snowpack. Dry deposition was therefore not an important contributor of H+, NO3−, and SO42− to the winter snowpack. The source of the ions in snowfall was air masses that originated over the Pacific Ocean, while low Cl− and Na+ relative to NO3− and NH4+ in rainfall indicate that local urban and agricultural areas were the major source of the ions in rainfall.

Journal

Water Resources ResearchWiley

Published: Jul 1, 1991

References

  • Ion elution through shallow homogeneous snow
    Bales, Bales; Davis, Davis; Stanley, Stanley
  • Snow accumulation and distribution in an alpine watershed
    Elder, Elder; Dozier, Dozier; Michaelsen, Michaelsen
  • Hydrologic characteristics an water balance of an Alpine basin in the Sierra Nevada
    Kattelmann, Kattelmann; Elder, Elder
  • Variation of rain chemistry during storms at two sites in northern California
    Kennedy, Kennedy; Zellweger, Zellweger; Avanzino, Avanzino
  • The Emerald Lake watershed study: Introduction and site description
    Tonnessen, Tonnessen

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off