INTRODUCTIONInfluenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection remains a great health concern with a remarkable ability of the virus to cause global pandemics. Since its emergence, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 has been circulating continuously among population with newly emerging strains that affects millions of people each year. Influenza virus is a single stranded negative‐sense RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. The genome of the virus comprises of eight segments which encodes for eleven proteins. There are 18 Hemagglutinin or HA (H1‐H18) and 11 Neuraminidase or NA (N1‐N11) subtypes based on the antigenicity of the virus and many different combinations of HA &NA proteins are possible. Mutation in HA and NA glycoproteins due to antigenic drift by frequent occurrence of point mutations and antigenic shift, involving re‐assortment of RNA segments from different strains, results into ineffectiveness of influenza vaccines against circulating strains. Subsequently, many vaccine strategies have been employed which target conserved regions of HA and NA glycoproteins, with an aim to overcome the antigenic variability of influenza virus against its vaccine components. The target molecules (HA and NA glycoproteins) are recognized by human leucocyte antigen (HLA) for its presentation to immune cells and function against the virus.The HLA loci located in the short arm
Journal of Medical Virology – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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