Phylogeography of Eastern Polynesian sandalwood ( Santalum insulare ), an endangered tree species from the Pacific: a study based on chloroplast microsatellites

Phylogeography of Eastern Polynesian sandalwood ( Santalum insulare ), an endangered tree species... Aim Patterns of genetic variation within forest species are poorly documented in island ecosystems. The distribution of molecular variation for Santalum insulare, an endangered tree species endemic to the islands of eastern Polynesia, was analysed using chloroplast microsatellite markers. The aims were to quantify the genetic diversity; to assess the genetic structure; and to analyse the geographical distribution of the diversity within and between archipelagoes. The ultimate goal was to pre‐define evolutionary significant units (ESUs) for conservation and restoration programmes of this species, which constitutes a natural resource on small, isolated islands. Location Eleven populations, each representative of one island, covering most of the natural occurrence of S. insulare were sampled: five populations from the Marquesas Archipelago; three from the Society Archipelago; and three from the Cook–Austral Archipelago. These South Pacific islands are known for their high degree of plant endemism, and for their human occupation by Polynesian migrations. The extensive exploitation of sandalwood by Europeans nearly 200 years ago for its fragrant heartwood, used overseas in incense, carving and essential oil production for perfume, has dramatically reduced the population size of this species. Methods We used chloroplast microsatellites, which provide useful information in phylogeographical forest tree analyses. They are maternally inherited in most angiosperms and present high polymorphism. Among the 499 individuals sampled, 345 were genotyped successfully. Classical models of population genetics were used to assess diversity parameters and phylogenetic relationships between populations. Results Four microsatellite primers showed 16 alleles and their combinations provided 17 chlorotypes, of which four exhibited a frequency > 10% in the total population. The gene diversity index was high for the total population (He = 0.82) and varied among archipelagoes from He = 0.40 to 0.67. Genetic structure is characterized by high levels of differentiation between archipelagoes (36% of total variation) and between islands, but differentiation between islands varied according to archipelago. The relationship between genetic and geographical distance confirms the low gene flow between archipelagoes. The minimum spanning tree of chlorotypes exhibits three clusters corresponding to the geographical distribution in the three main archipelagoes. Main conclusions The high level of diversity within the species was explained by an ancient presence on and around the hotspot traces currently occupied by young islands. Diversity in the species has enabled survival in a range of habitats. Relationships between islands show that the Cook–Austral chlorotype cluster constitutes a link between the Marquesas and the Society Islands. This can be explained by the evolution of the island systems over millions of years, and extinction of intermediary populations on the Tuamotu Islands following subsidence there. Based on the unrooted neighbour‐joining tree and on the genetic structure, we propose four ESUs to guide the conservation and population restoration of Polynesian Sandalwood: the Society Archipelago; the Marquesas Archipelago; Raivavae Island; and Rapa Island. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Biogeography Wiley

Phylogeography of Eastern Polynesian sandalwood ( Santalum insulare ), an endangered tree species from the Pacific: a study based on chloroplast microsatellites

Loading next page...
 
/lp/wiley/phylogeography-of-eastern-polynesian-sandalwood-santalum-insulare-an-GOSTCr4k6A
Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 2005 Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
ISSN
0305-0270
eISSN
1365-2699
DOI
10.1111/j.1365-2699.2005.01330.x
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Aim Patterns of genetic variation within forest species are poorly documented in island ecosystems. The distribution of molecular variation for Santalum insulare, an endangered tree species endemic to the islands of eastern Polynesia, was analysed using chloroplast microsatellite markers. The aims were to quantify the genetic diversity; to assess the genetic structure; and to analyse the geographical distribution of the diversity within and between archipelagoes. The ultimate goal was to pre‐define evolutionary significant units (ESUs) for conservation and restoration programmes of this species, which constitutes a natural resource on small, isolated islands. Location Eleven populations, each representative of one island, covering most of the natural occurrence of S. insulare were sampled: five populations from the Marquesas Archipelago; three from the Society Archipelago; and three from the Cook–Austral Archipelago. These South Pacific islands are known for their high degree of plant endemism, and for their human occupation by Polynesian migrations. The extensive exploitation of sandalwood by Europeans nearly 200 years ago for its fragrant heartwood, used overseas in incense, carving and essential oil production for perfume, has dramatically reduced the population size of this species. Methods We used chloroplast microsatellites, which provide useful information in phylogeographical forest tree analyses. They are maternally inherited in most angiosperms and present high polymorphism. Among the 499 individuals sampled, 345 were genotyped successfully. Classical models of population genetics were used to assess diversity parameters and phylogenetic relationships between populations. Results Four microsatellite primers showed 16 alleles and their combinations provided 17 chlorotypes, of which four exhibited a frequency > 10% in the total population. The gene diversity index was high for the total population (He = 0.82) and varied among archipelagoes from He = 0.40 to 0.67. Genetic structure is characterized by high levels of differentiation between archipelagoes (36% of total variation) and between islands, but differentiation between islands varied according to archipelago. The relationship between genetic and geographical distance confirms the low gene flow between archipelagoes. The minimum spanning tree of chlorotypes exhibits three clusters corresponding to the geographical distribution in the three main archipelagoes. Main conclusions The high level of diversity within the species was explained by an ancient presence on and around the hotspot traces currently occupied by young islands. Diversity in the species has enabled survival in a range of habitats. Relationships between islands show that the Cook–Austral chlorotype cluster constitutes a link between the Marquesas and the Society Islands. This can be explained by the evolution of the island systems over millions of years, and extinction of intermediary populations on the Tuamotu Islands following subsidence there. Based on the unrooted neighbour‐joining tree and on the genetic structure, we propose four ESUs to guide the conservation and population restoration of Polynesian Sandalwood: the Society Archipelago; the Marquesas Archipelago; Raivavae Island; and Rapa Island.

Journal

Journal of BiogeographyWiley

Published: Oct 1, 2005

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off