Male business leaders responded to 3 instruments, the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI‐SELF), the Kirton Adaption‐Innovation Inventory (KAI), and a measure of optimism and pessimism (O/P). Approximately 5 to 6 (range = 3 to 9) of each of the 48 leaders' direct reports rated their leaders on the LPI (LPI‐OBSERVER) and also responded to the O/P instrument. As predicted, both the leaders and their direct reports had lower mean scores on pessimism than a normative group; neither group differed from the norm on optimism. The leader KAI scores were negatively correlated with pessimism, and positively, though not significantly so, with optimism. Optimism was positively correlated with 2 factors of the LPI‐OBSERVER, but pessimism was not correlated with any of the five LPI factors.
Journal of Applied Social Psychology – Wiley
Published: May 1, 1998
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