Occupational asthma risk from exposures to toluene diisocyanate: A review and risk assessment

Occupational asthma risk from exposures to toluene diisocyanate: A review and risk assessment INTRODUCTIONAsthma is a complex heterogeneous respiratory disease characterized by variable airflow limitation and/or airway hyperresponsiveness. The disease is among the most common chronic illnesses in the human experience, affecting about 300 million people worldwide. The incidence of new‐onset adult asthma appears on the rise in industrialized countries, with estimates ranging from <1 to 11 cases per 1000 person‐year among published reports, but settling on about 2 per 1000 person‐years among persons aged 20‐50 years in large prospective studies. The broad category of work‐related asthma comprises adult onset asthma cases that are either caused by workplace exposures (ie, occupational asthma) or are a preexisting disease that is worsened by work factors (work‐exacerbated asthma). Estimates of the fraction of adult asthma that is work‐related have widely varied, but typically range between 10 and 25% in industrialized countries.De novo occupational asthma (OA) is induced via sensitization to a specific substance in the workplace, or by exposure to an inhaled irritant at work. There are over 300 causal agents for OA, which are broadly separated into proteinaceous substances (eg, natural rubber latex, enzymes, and animal‐derived antigens), and low‐molecular weight (LMW) chemicals (eg, isocyanates and acid anhydrides). Among known LMW agents, isocyanates, such as http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Industrial Medicine Wiley

Occupational asthma risk from exposures to toluene diisocyanate: A review and risk assessment

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Publisher
Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Copyright
© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
ISSN
0271-3586
eISSN
1097-0274
D.O.I.
10.1002/ajim.22815
Publisher site
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Abstract

INTRODUCTIONAsthma is a complex heterogeneous respiratory disease characterized by variable airflow limitation and/or airway hyperresponsiveness. The disease is among the most common chronic illnesses in the human experience, affecting about 300 million people worldwide. The incidence of new‐onset adult asthma appears on the rise in industrialized countries, with estimates ranging from <1 to 11 cases per 1000 person‐year among published reports, but settling on about 2 per 1000 person‐years among persons aged 20‐50 years in large prospective studies. The broad category of work‐related asthma comprises adult onset asthma cases that are either caused by workplace exposures (ie, occupational asthma) or are a preexisting disease that is worsened by work factors (work‐exacerbated asthma). Estimates of the fraction of adult asthma that is work‐related have widely varied, but typically range between 10 and 25% in industrialized countries.De novo occupational asthma (OA) is induced via sensitization to a specific substance in the workplace, or by exposure to an inhaled irritant at work. There are over 300 causal agents for OA, which are broadly separated into proteinaceous substances (eg, natural rubber latex, enzymes, and animal‐derived antigens), and low‐molecular weight (LMW) chemicals (eg, isocyanates and acid anhydrides). Among known LMW agents, isocyanates, such as

Journal

American Journal of Industrial MedicineWiley

Published: Jan 1, 2018

Keywords: ; ; ; ;

References

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