1700607 (1 of 7)
2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Novel Making of Bacterial Cellulose Blended Polymeric
Esra Altun, Mehmet Onur Aydogdu, Fatma Koc, Maryam Crabbe-Mann, Francis Brako,
Rupy Kaur-Matharu, Gunes Ozen, Serap Erdem Kuruca, Ursula Edirisinghe,
Oguzhan Gunduz, and Mohan Edirisinghe*
E. Altun, M. O. Aydogdu, Dr. O. Gunduz
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
Goztepe Campus, 34722 Istanbul, Turkey
Department of Medical Microbiology
Beykoz, 34810 Istanbul, Turkey
M. Crabbe-Mann, Dr. F. Brako, R. Kaur-Matharu, Prof. M. Edirisinghe
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University College London (UCL)
Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE, UK
Department of Molecular Medicine
Capa, 34393 Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. S. E. Kuruca
Department of Physiology
Capa, 34393 Istanbul, Turkey
Dr. U. Edirisinghe
Accident and Emergency Department
Chelsea and Westminster Hospital
Fulham Road, Chelsea, London SW10 9NH, UK
factors and pathogenic invaders.
promised integrity of the skin would jeop-
ardize this naturally impenetrable barrier
and any kind of skin trauma needs to be
repaired as soon as possible. The nature of
the human body is designed to withstand
skin injuries by a physiological phenom-
enon that aims to re-establish the unique
formation for each skin layer. However,
wound healing processes of the skin con-
sists of a complex mechanism of biological
regeneration, which is challenging to com-
pletely mimic and involves many steps
such as cell proliferation, migration, and
Additionally, burn wounds can require spe-
cial treatment to prevent ﬂuid loss and infections.
wound dressing studies are being pursued by many in recent
years with the purpose of ﬁnding an alternative way to support
self-regeneration of skin.
Using polymeric ﬁbers to create
the appropriate environment for cells to attach has signiﬁ-
cant importance and encouraging results have been achieved
according to the previous studies.
With respect to the prepa-
ration of wound dressings, electrospinning is frequently used
because of its ﬁber production capability and simplicity.
However, weaving a wound dressing matt using electrospin-
ning can be complicated by the fact of low yield and efﬁciency
of the single-nozzle process and process control complica-
tions of the multiple needle process. In this respect, a novel
method, pressurized gyration, which is based on production of
polymeric nanoﬁbers using application of centrifugal force and
dynamic ﬂuid ﬂow offer a viable alternative.
This process and
are more amenable to the generation
of sizeable mats (wound bandages) and their mass production.
Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) is a synthetic and a
hydrophobic polymer, which is also easy to process. How-
ever, PMMA ﬁbers bring some limitations such as brittleness
and low strength, which restricts its efﬁcient use in engi-
These limitations can be overcome by blending it
with a natural polymer.
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural
polymer which is very promising for making wound healing
materials due to its exceptional features such as high strength,
durability, thermal stability, biocompatibility, and low cost.
Also, various materials based on nongenotoxic and noncyto-
toxic bacterial cellulose have been commercialized
motes it as a major wound healing material. However, it is
difﬁcult to process. Thus, using BC together with PMMA can
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a very promising biological material. However,
at present its utilization is limited by difﬁculties in shape forming it. In this
Communication, it is shown how this can be overcome by blending it with
poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) polymer. BC:PMMA ﬁbers are produced
by pressurized gyration of blended BC:PMMA solutions. Subsequently,
BC:PMMA bandage-like scaffolds are generated with different blends. The
products are investigated to determine their morphological and chemical fea-
tures. Cell culture and proliferation tests are performed to obtain information
on biocompatibility of the scaffolds.
Skin is a crucial component of the human body and its primary
objective is to create a protective shield against environmental
© 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA,
Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and re-
production in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Macromol. Mater. Eng. 2018, 303, 1700607