Noradrenergic mechanisms in stress and anxiety: II. Clinical studies

Noradrenergic mechanisms in stress and anxiety: II. Clinical studies Studies in animals have shown a relationship between alterations in noradrenergic brain system function and behaviors of anxiety and fear. These findings have generated the hypothesis that the symptoms seen in patients with anxiety disorders may be related to alterations in noradrenergic function. A number of clinical studies have tested this hypothesis, utilizing measures of catecholaminergic function such as heart rate and blood pressure, measurement of norepinephrine and its metabolites in urine and plasma and adrenergic receptor binding in platelets, as well as pharmacological challenge to the noradrenergic system. Acute stressors, such as public speaking, have been associated with an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and norepinephrine and its metabolites in urine and plasma. Findings in patients with panic disorder at baseline related to heart rate, blood pressure, baseline norepinephrine and its metabolites, and platelet adrenergic receptors have been mixed, while the most consistent findings have been blunted growth hormone response to clonidine and increased 3‐methoxy‐4‐hydroxy‐phenylethylene‐glucol (MHPG) and anxiety following stimulation of the noradrenergic system with yohimbine. Baseline measures of noradrenergic function in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have also been mixed, while an increased heart, blood pressure and norepinephrine response to traumatic reminders, as well as increased behavioral (as well as different brain metabolic) response to yohimbine, have been found in PTSD. There are fewer studies of noradrenergic function in the other anxiety disorders, and the findings there have not been consistent. These studies provide evidence for increased noradrenergic responsiveness in panic disorder and PTSD, although there does not appear to be an alteration in baseline noradrenergic function in these patients. © 1996 Wiley‐Liss, Inc. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Synapse Wiley

Noradrenergic mechanisms in stress and anxiety: II. Clinical studies

Loading next page...
 
/lp/wiley/noradrenergic-mechanisms-in-stress-and-anxiety-ii-clinical-studies-Tk9ChUsMNj
Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 1996 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
ISSN
0887-4476
eISSN
1098-2396
DOI
10.1002/(SICI)1098-2396(199605)23:1<39::AID-SYN5>3.0.CO;2-I
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Studies in animals have shown a relationship between alterations in noradrenergic brain system function and behaviors of anxiety and fear. These findings have generated the hypothesis that the symptoms seen in patients with anxiety disorders may be related to alterations in noradrenergic function. A number of clinical studies have tested this hypothesis, utilizing measures of catecholaminergic function such as heart rate and blood pressure, measurement of norepinephrine and its metabolites in urine and plasma and adrenergic receptor binding in platelets, as well as pharmacological challenge to the noradrenergic system. Acute stressors, such as public speaking, have been associated with an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and norepinephrine and its metabolites in urine and plasma. Findings in patients with panic disorder at baseline related to heart rate, blood pressure, baseline norepinephrine and its metabolites, and platelet adrenergic receptors have been mixed, while the most consistent findings have been blunted growth hormone response to clonidine and increased 3‐methoxy‐4‐hydroxy‐phenylethylene‐glucol (MHPG) and anxiety following stimulation of the noradrenergic system with yohimbine. Baseline measures of noradrenergic function in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have also been mixed, while an increased heart, blood pressure and norepinephrine response to traumatic reminders, as well as increased behavioral (as well as different brain metabolic) response to yohimbine, have been found in PTSD. There are fewer studies of noradrenergic function in the other anxiety disorders, and the findings there have not been consistent. These studies provide evidence for increased noradrenergic responsiveness in panic disorder and PTSD, although there does not appear to be an alteration in baseline noradrenergic function in these patients. © 1996 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

Journal

SynapseWiley

Published: May 1, 1996

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off