Noradrenergic mechanisms in stress and anxiety: I. preclinical studies

Noradrenergic mechanisms in stress and anxiety: I. preclinical studies There is considerable preclinical evidence for a relationship between noradrenergic brain systems and behaviors associated with stress and anxiety. The majority of noradrenergic neurons are located in the locus coeruleus (pons), with projections throughout the cerebral cortex and multiple subcortical areas, including hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and hypothalamus. This neuroanatomical formation of the noradrenergic system makes it well suited to rapidly and globally modulate brain function in response to changes in the environment, as occurs during the presentation of stressors. Stress exposure is associated with an increase in firing of the locus coeruleus and with associated increased release and turnover of norepinephrine in brain regions which receive noradrenergic innervation. Increased firing of the locus coeruleus is also associated with behavioral manifestations of fear, such as arched back and piloerection in the cat. Exposure to chronic stress results in long‐term alterations in locus coeruleus firing and norepinephrine release in target brain regions of the locus coeruleus. Norepinephrine is also involved in neural mechanisms such as sensitization and fear conditioning, which are associated with stress. These findings are relevant to an understanding of psychiatric disorders, such as panic disorder and post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the symptoms of which have been hypothesized to be related to alterations in noradrenergic function. © 1996 Wiley‐Liss, Inc. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Synapse Wiley

Noradrenergic mechanisms in stress and anxiety: I. preclinical studies

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 1996 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
ISSN
0887-4476
eISSN
1098-2396
DOI
10.1002/(SICI)1098-2396(199605)23:1<28::AID-SYN4>3.0.CO;2-J
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

There is considerable preclinical evidence for a relationship between noradrenergic brain systems and behaviors associated with stress and anxiety. The majority of noradrenergic neurons are located in the locus coeruleus (pons), with projections throughout the cerebral cortex and multiple subcortical areas, including hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and hypothalamus. This neuroanatomical formation of the noradrenergic system makes it well suited to rapidly and globally modulate brain function in response to changes in the environment, as occurs during the presentation of stressors. Stress exposure is associated with an increase in firing of the locus coeruleus and with associated increased release and turnover of norepinephrine in brain regions which receive noradrenergic innervation. Increased firing of the locus coeruleus is also associated with behavioral manifestations of fear, such as arched back and piloerection in the cat. Exposure to chronic stress results in long‐term alterations in locus coeruleus firing and norepinephrine release in target brain regions of the locus coeruleus. Norepinephrine is also involved in neural mechanisms such as sensitization and fear conditioning, which are associated with stress. These findings are relevant to an understanding of psychiatric disorders, such as panic disorder and post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the symptoms of which have been hypothesized to be related to alterations in noradrenergic function. © 1996 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

Journal

SynapseWiley

Published: May 1, 1996

References

  • Chronic stress, increases serotonin and noradrenaline in rat brain and sensitizes their responses to further acute stress
    Adell, Adell; Garcia‐Marquez, Garcia‐Marquez; Armario, Armario; Gelpi, Gelpi
  • Significant differences in retrograde labeling of spinothalamic tract cells by horseradish peroxidase and fluorescent tracers fast blue and diamidino yellow
    Craig, Craig; Linington, Linington; Kniftki, Kniftki
  • Coordinate regulation of the cyclic AMP system with firing rate and expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the rat locus coeruleus: effects of chronic stress and drug treatments
    Melia, Melia; Rasmussen, Rasmussen; Terwilliger, Terwilliger; Haycock, Haycock; Nestler, Nestler; Duman, Duman
  • Failure to block responses of locus coeruleus neurons to somatosensory stimuli by destruction of two major afferent nuclei
    Rasmussen, Rasmussen; Aghajanian, Aghajanian

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